Glutamate: its role in learning, memory, and the aging brain

  title={Glutamate: its role in learning, memory, and the aging brain},
  author={William J. Mcentee and Thomas H. Crook},
Abstractl-Glutamate is the most abundant of a group of endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system which presumably function as excitatory neurotransmitters and under abnormal conditions may behave as neurotoxins. As neurotransmitters, these compounds are thought to play an important role in functions of learning and memory. As neurotoxins, they are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders in which cognition is impaired. Moreover… 
Free l-glutamate-induced modulation in oxidative and neurochemical profile contributes to enhancement in locomotor and memory performance in male rats
Results showed that chronic supplementation of free l-Glu enhanced locomotor performance and cognitive function of animals which may be attributed to the improved antioxidant status and cholinergic, monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in brain and hippocampus.
Neurochemistry of the Anterior Thalamic Nuclei
In order to extend knowledge concerning exact functions of selected neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the studied brain structure, the future studies should concentrate on potential alterations in the neurochemical profile during various pathological states which affect the anterior thalamic nuclei.
Current approaches to enhance glutamate transporter function and expression
The current status of the search for EAAT2/GLT‐1 activators is described, challenges and limitations that this approach might encounter are addressed and pharmacological activators of the activity of EAAT1/ GLT1 are described as promising tools for neuroprotection.
Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone, Glutamate, and γ-Aminobutyric Acid in Depression
  • S. Gao, A. Bao
  • Psychology
    The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry
  • 2011
This review examines the evidence for a major role of the HPA axis, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in the pathogenesis of major and bipolar depression to help develop new types of antidepressants that combine increased efficacy with a shorter delay of the onset of action and reduced side-effect profiles.
Glutamate Metabolism in Mitochondria is Closely Related to Alzheimer's Disease.
This paper intends to elaborate the key role of mitochondrial glutamate metabolism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and review MSG metabolism in mitochondria as a potential target in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Neuroanatomical changes associated with cognitive aging.
The literature on the neuroanatomical changes that occur during normal, non-demented aging is reviewed here with an emphasis on the improved accuracy of studies that use stereological techniques.
A quantitative meta-analysis of brain glutamate metabolites in aging
The Aging Brain
The following chapter discusses the structural and functional alterations in the brain in ageing and neurodegeneration.


Excitatory amino acids and Alzheimer's disease
The role of glutamate in neurotransmission and in neurologic disease.
Pharmacologic manipulation of the glutamatergic system may have great potential for the rational treatment of a variety of neurologic diseases.
Glutamate: A Neurotransmitter in Mammalian Brain
  • F. Fonnum
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Journal of neurochemistry
  • 1984
The evidence for glutamate as a transmitter at the locust neuromuscular junction has recently been carefully evaluated by Usherwood (1981), and it is shown that mechanisms exist that will terminate transmitter action rapidly.
Evidence of Glutamatergic Denervation and Possible Abnormal Metabolism in Alzheimer's Disease
Early in the disease evidence of glutamatergic neurone loss is provided by the finding that in many regions of the cerebral cortex the Na+‐dependent uptake of D‐[3H]aspartic acid was almost always lowest in AD subjects compared with control when assessed by a method designed to minimise artifacts and epiphenomena.
Glutamate dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: an hypothesis
Age-related changes in glutamate concentration and synaptosomal glutamate uptake in adult rat striatum.
Endogenous glutamate release from frontal cortex of adult and aged rats
Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity.
This work has shown that L-glutamate is accepted as the predominant fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain.
Age-related changes in multiple neurotransmitter systems in the monkey brain