Glucose patterns during the OGTT and risk of future diabetes in an urban Indian population: The CARRS study.
AIMS Traditionally, fasting and 2-hour post challenge plasma glucose have been used to diagnose diabetes. However, evidence indicates that clinically relevant pathophysiological information can be obtained by adding intermediate time-points to a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS We studied a population-based sample of 3666 Asian Indians without diabetes from the CARRS-Chennai Study, India. Participants underwent a three-point (fasting, 30-min, and 2-h) OGTT at baseline. Patterns of glycemic response during OGTT were identified using latent class mixed-effects models. After a median follow-up of two years, participants had a second OGTT. Logistic regression adjusted for diabetes risk factors was used to compare risk of incident diabetes among participants in different latent classes. RESULTS We identified four latent classes with different glucose patterns (Classes 1-4). Glucose values for Classes 1, 2, and 4 ranked consistently at all three time-points, but at gradually higher levels. However, Class 3 represented a distinct pattern, characterized by high 30-min (30minPG), normal fasting (FPG) and 2-h (2hPG) plasma glucose, moderately high insulin sensitivity, and low acute insulin response. Approximately 22% of participants were categorized as Class 3, and had a 10-fold risk of diabetes compared to the group with the most favorable glucose response, despite 92.5% of Class 3 participants having normal glucose tolerance (NGT) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS Elevated 30minPG is associated with high risk of incident diabetes, even in individuals classified as NGT by a traditional OGTT. Assessing 30minPG may identify a subgroup of high-risk individuals who remained unidentified by traditional measures.