Glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon‐like peptide‐1: Incretin actions beyond the pancreas


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are the two primary incretin hormones secreted from the intestine on ingestion of various nutrients to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells glucose-dependently. GIP and GLP-1 undergo degradation by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), and rapidly lose their biological activities. The actions of GIP and GLP-1 are mediated by their specific receptors, the GIP receptor (GIPR) and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which are expressed in pancreatic β-cells, as well as in various tissues and organs. A series of investigations using mice lacking GIPR and/or GLP-1R, as well as mice lacking DPP-4, showed involvement of GIP and GLP-1 in divergent biological activities, some of which could have implications for preventing diabetes-related microvascular complications (e.g., retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy) and macrovascular complications (e.g., coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease and cerebrovascular disease), as well as diabetes-related comorbidity (e.g., obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, bone fracture and cognitive dysfunction). Furthermore, recent studies using incretin-based drugs, such as GLP-1 receptor agonists, which stably activate GLP-1R signaling, and DPP-4 inhibitors, which enhance both GLP-1R and GIPR signaling, showed that GLP-1 and GIP exert effects possibly linked to prevention or treatment of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities independently of hyperglycemia. We review recent findings on the extrapancreatic effects of GIP and GLP-1 on the heart, brain, kidney, eye and nerves, as well as in the liver, fat and several organs from the perspective of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities.

DOI: 10.1111/jdi.12065

Extracted Key Phrases

7 Figures and Tables

Citations per Year

540 Citations

Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has 540 citations based on the available data.

See our FAQ for additional information.

Cite this paper

@inproceedings{Seino2013GlucosedependentIP, title={Glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon‐like peptide‐1: Incretin actions beyond the pancreas}, author={Yutaka Seino and Daisuke Yabe}, booktitle={Journal of diabetes investigation}, year={2013} }