Increased peritoneal damage in glyoxalase 1 knock-down mice treated with peritoneal dialysis.
Conventional heat-sterilized, glucose-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids contain significant amounts of glucose degradation products (GDPs) such as aldehydes and dicarbonyl compounds (glyoxal, methylglyoxal). These GDPs have been shown to impair cell functions in various in vitro experimental models. In peritoneal mesothelial cells, GDPs dose-dependently inhibit cell proliferation and mediator synthesis. In addition, some GDPs potently promote generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Immunohistochemistry finds AGEs in the peritoneal membrane of chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, suggesting that peritoneal AGE accumulation may be involved in chronic peritoneal fibrosis. The formation of GDPs might be prevented by filter-sterilization of PD fluids. Another option is to separate the glucose and the buffer system in dual-chambered or multi-chambered containers. In these systems, the glucose is kept in a separate compartment at high concentration and very low pH-both conditions being known to minimize the degree of glucose decomposition during autoclaving. Initial experimental evidence suggests that these novel, multi-chambered fluids significantly improve in vitro biocompatibility; however, the clinical relevance of these results remains to be established in clinical trials.