Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase: a “housekeeping” enzyme subject to tissue‐specific regulation by hormones, nutrients, and oxidant stress

@article{Kletzien1994Glucose6phosphateDA,
  title={Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase: a “housekeeping” enzyme subject to tissue‐specific regulation by hormones, nutrients, and oxidant stress},
  author={Rolf F. Kletzien and Peter K. W. Harris and Lisa A. Foellmi},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={1994},
  volume={8},
  pages={174 - 181}
}
The enzyme, glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC1.1.1.49), has long been considered and studied as the archetypical X‐linked “housekeeping” enzyme that is present in all cells, where it plays the key role in regulating carbon flow through the pentose phosphate pathway. Specifically, the enzyme catalyzes the first reaction in the pathway leading to the production of pentose phosphates and reducing power in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis and maintenance of the redox state of… 
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References

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TLDR
The isolation of cDNA clones from HeLa cells, SV40-transformed human fibroblasts, human placenta and human teratocarcinoma cell lines have enabled us to sequence the entire coding region of Gd, providing the entire amino acid sequence of human G6PD for the first time.
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    European journal of biochemistry
  • 1992
TLDR
The first step in the pathway of long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is mediated by acetyl-CoACarboxylase, which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl -CoA to form malonyl- CoA, the synthesis of which is catalyzed by malic enzyme and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Nutritional regulation of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Transient activation of transcription.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that transcription of the G6PDH gene is transiently elevated after ingestion of a high-carbohydrate diet, and the increased rate of transcription cannot totally account for the increased G6 PDH mRNA.
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TLDR
1,25(OH)2D3 may influence biosynthesis in the duodenum via stimulation of G6PD activity and the H2 pathway of NADPH utilization and the two utilization pathways of synthesized NADPH, H1 and H2 (biosynthesis), was studied.
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TLDR
The results suggest that a metabolite of linoleic acid regulates the activity of two lipogenic enzymes, G6PD and 6PGD, by lowering gene expression or mRNA processing or stability.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA sequence abundance in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Effect of insulin and dexamethasone.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that G6PDH mRNA amounts are modulated in liver by these two classes of hormones and can partially account for the dietary induction of the enzyme observed in vivo.
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TLDR
Binding of G6PDH to the particulate fraction lowers its catalytic activity at all substrate concentrations, and release of the enzyme into the cytoplasm may be an important part of the suite of events causing metabolic activation of the egg at fertilization.
Acetaldehyde increases mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in rat hepatocytes in culture
TLDR
The data is suggestive of the effect of ethanol being mediated through a metabolite, acetaldehyde, and in rat hepatocytes incubated in a chemically defined medium the addition of acetaldehyde increased G6PDH mRNA levels 2-3 fold over control.
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