Rg3-enriched ginseng extract ameliorates scopolamine-induced learning deficits in mice.
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE Beneficial effects of glucosamine in spatial learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine has been evaluated in rats by using Morris water maze. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, scopolamine and scopolamine plus glucosamine groups. All injections were given in 5 consecutive days and 30min after each injection, the rats were tested in the Morris water maze test. Escape latency and path length to reach the hidden platform were subjected to analysis of variance [ANOVA]. RESULTS The rats treated with scopolamine showed increased escape latency and path length to reach the hidden platform compared to control group (P<0.001). Both escape latency and traveled path length to reach the hidden platform in glucosamine treated animals (1 and 2g/kg) were significantly lower (P<0.05 to P<0.001) than in the scopolamine group. CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that the glucosamine can inhibit scopolamine-induced impairments of spatial learning and memory in rats. Glucosamine might offer a promise in either the prevention or the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.