Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: The secret of making sweet milk from sour dough

  title={Gluconeogenesis in dairy cows: The secret of making sweet milk from sour dough},
  author={J{\"o}rg R. Aschenbach and Niels Bastian Kristensen and Shawn S. Donkin and Harald Michael Hammon and Gregory B Penner},
  journal={IUBMB Life},
Gluconeogenesis is a crucial process to support glucose homeostasis when nutritional supply with glucose is insufficient. Because ingested carbohydrates are efficiently fermented to short‐chain fatty acids in the rumen, ruminants are required to meet the largest part of their glucose demand by de novo genesis after weaning. The qualitative difference to nonruminant species is that propionate originating from ruminal metabolism is the major substrate for gluconeogenesis. Disposal of propionate… 

Control of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis During the Transition Period

The importance of gluconeogenesis, a metabolic pathway that results in formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates, is underscored in dairy cattle by to the lack of intestinal

Short communication: Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes by dietary glycerol in transition dairy cows.

The observed increase in PEPCK-C expression with glycerol feeding may indicate regulation of hepatic gene expression by changes in rumen propionate production and suggests that dietary energy source alters hepatic expression.

Propionate induces gluconeogenesis in dairy cattle through direct activation of the bovine cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene promoter

The central hypothesis of this dissertation is that propionate regulates its own metabolism in liver of dairy cattle through regulation of the PCK1 gene, a critical reaction for gluconeogenesis.

Effect of propionate on mRNA expression of key genes for gluconeogenesis in liver of dairy cattle.

Data indicate a tendency for in vivo effects of propionate to alter hepatic gene expression in mid-lactation cows and neonatal calves, which is consistent with a feed-forward effect of propIONate to regulate its own metabolism toward gluconeogenesis through changes in hepatic PCK1 mRNA.

Histidine Promotes the Glucose Synthesis through Activation of the Gluconeogenic Pathway in Bovine Hepatocytes

It is demonstrated that bovine hepatocytes can efficiently convert His into glucose to provide the energy required and indicate that the addition of His may be efficiently converted into glucose via the upregulation of genes related to the gluconeogenic pathway.

Increased anaplerosis, TCA cycling, and oxidative phosphorylation in the liver of dairy cows with intensive body fat mobilization during early lactation.

Data indicate that increasing lipolysis leads to augmenting nutrient catabolism for anaplerosis and mitochondrial respiration, providing a molecular link between hepatic oxidative processes and feed intake.

Precursors for liver gluconeogenesis in periparturient dairy cows.

Combining data from quantitative and qualitative experimental techniques on L-lactate metabolism point to the conclusion that the quantitatively most important adaptation of metabolism to support the increased glucose demand in the immediate post partum period is endogenous recycling of glucogenic carbon through lactate.

Hepatic pyruvate carboxylase expression differed prior to hyperketonemia onset in transition dairy cows

It is demonstrated that HYK cows experience a decrease in the ratio of hepatic PC to PCK at 1 day postpartum prior to HYK diagnosis which, on average, manifested a week later.

Metabolic Hydrogen Flows in Rumen Fermentation: Principles and Possibilities of Interventions

  • E. Ungerfeld
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Frontiers in Microbiology
  • 2020
A basic kinetic model of competition for dihydrogen is presented, and possibilities for intervention to redirect metabolic hydrogen from methanogenesis toward alternative useful electron sinks are discussed.



Gluconeogenesis in cattle: significance and methodology.

  • J. Young
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of dairy science
  • 1977
Progress has been considerable in understanding some aspects of ruminant gluconeogenesis, but many more studies will be required to obtain a complete understanding.

Bovine somatotropin increases hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA in lactating dairy cows.

The data indicate increased PEPCK mRNA in cows given ST and indicates a greater capacity for gluconeogenesis from gluconeogenic precursors that form oxaloacetate.

Adaptations of Glucose and Long-Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism in Liver of Dairy Cows during the Periparturient Period

Techniques of modern biochemistry promise to further understanding of the mechanisms of metabolic adaptation during the peripartal period, and to quantify the effects of nutrition and environment during pre- and postpartum periods on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

Effects of glucose, propionic acid, and nonessential amino acids on glucose metabolism and milk yield in Holstein dairy cows.

Intestinal Glc was the most efficient nutrient in terms of increasing glucose Ra; however, there was no direct link between the increases in whole body glucose Ra observed with the 3 types of nutrients and milk lactose yield.

Feed restriction induces pyruvate carboxylase but not phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in dairy cows.

The data indicate expression of genes for key metabolic processes in liver of lactating cows is responsive to feeding level and expression of PC mRNA is part of the adaptive response to feed intake restriction and is matched by increased capacity for gluconeogenesis from lactate.

Changes in mRNA expression for gluconeogenic enzymes in liver of dairy cattle during the transition to lactation.

Increased abundance of PC mRNA is demonstrated during the early transition period followed by increased abundance of PEPCK mRNA during the postpartum period and increased potential metabolism of lactate, pyruvate, and amino acids that contribute to the liver pyruVate pool is suggested.

Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues

Transcriptional studies of the PC gene pinpoint some transcription factors that determine tissue-specific expression, suggesting that PC is involved in the metabolic switch controlling fuel partitioning toward lipogenesis.

Biochemical aspects of bovine ketosis.

The findings are taken to be consistent with the concept that an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, causing a decrease in the concentration of oxaloacetate, is a major causal factor in ketogenesis.

Energy contributions of volatile fatty acids from the gastrointestinal tract in various species.

The VFA, also known as short-chain fatty acids, are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation of carbohydrates and endogenous substrates, such as mucus and may indirectly influence cholesterol synthesis and even help regulate insulin or glucagon secretion.

Biochemical aspects of bovine ketosis.

The findings are taken to be consistent with the concept that an increased rate of gluconeogenesis, causing a decrease in the concentration of oxaloacetate, is a major causal factor in ketogenesis.