Glucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans.

@article{Flint1998GlucagonlikeP1,
  title={Glucagon-like peptide 1 promotes satiety and suppresses energy intake in humans.},
  author={Anne Flint and Anne Raben and Arne Astrup and Jj. Holst},
  journal={The Journal of clinical investigation},
  year={1998},
  volume={101 3},
  pages={
          515-20
        }
}
We examined the effect of intravenously infused glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on subjective appetite sensations after an energy-fixed breakfast, and on spontaneous energy intake at an ad libitum lunch. 20 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, blinded, crossover study. Infusion (GLP-1, 50 pmol/ kg.h or saline) was started simultaneously with initiation of the test meals. Visual analogue scales were used to assess appetite sensations throughout the… 

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

A marked effect of GLP-1 on appetite is demonstrated by showing enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake in patients with diabetes type 2.

Energy intake and appetite are suppressed by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in obese men.

It is demonstrated that GLP-1 decreases feelings of hunger and reduces energy intake in obese humans and one possible mechanism for this finding might be an increased satiety primarily mediated by gastric vagal afferent signals.

The effect of physiological levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 on appetite, gastric emptying, energy and substrate metabolism in obesity

It is concluded that GLP-1 in physiological concentrations powerfully reduces the rate of entry of nutrients into the circulation by a reduction of gastric emptying rate in obese subjects and may be beneficial in weight reduction.

No effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on short-term satiety and energy intake in man

Doubts are cast on whether GLP-1 is a major satiety factor in man, although a raised circulating plasma glucose level, as would normally occur postprandially, might be necessary for GLp-1 to increase satiety.

No effect of physiological concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-2 on appetite and energy intake in normal weight subjects†

Circulating GLP-2 in physiological concentrations does not seem to play a significant role in human appetite regulation.

rapid communication Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

A marked effect of GLP-1 on appetite is demonstrated by showing enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake in patients with diabetes type 2.

Glucagon-like peptide-1: a potent regulator of food intake in humans

Intravenous infusions of GLP-1 decrease spontaneous food intake even at physiological plasma concentrations, implying an important role for GLp-1 in the regulation of the early satiety response in humans.

The effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on energy expenditure and substrate metabolism in humans

Peripheral GLp-1 decreased DIT and carbohydrate oxidation, probably secondary to a delayed absorption of nutrients, since substrate and hormone concentrations in plasma were suppressed during GLP-1 infusion.

Do the actions of glucagon-like peptide-1 on gastric emptying, appetite, and food intake involve release of amylin in humans?

GLP-1 exerts its effect on gastric emptying, appetite, food intake, and glucagon secretion directly, although secretion of amylin may contribute to some of these effects in healthy control subjects.
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