Glucagon – the new ‘insulin’ in the pathophysiology of diabetes

@article{Farhy2015GlucagonT,
  title={Glucagon – the new ‘insulin’ in the pathophysiology of diabetes},
  author={L. Farhy and A. McCall},
  journal={Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care},
  year={2015},
  volume={18},
  pages={407–414}
}
  • L. Farhy, A. McCall
  • Published 2015
  • Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Purpose of reviewAutoimmune destruction of the &bgr; cells is considered the key abnormality in type 1 diabetes mellitus and insulin replacement the primary therapeutic strategy. However, a lack of insulin is accompanied by disturbances in glucagon release, which is excessive postprandially, but insufficient during hypoglycaemia. In addition, replacing insulin alone appears insufficient for adequate glucose control. This review focuses on the growing body of evidence that glucagon abnormalities… Expand
The New Biology and Pharmacology of Glucagon.
TLDR
This review summarizes the extensive historical record and the more recent provocative direction that integrates the prominent role of glucagon in glucose elevation with its under-acknowledged effects on lipids, body weight, and vascular health that have implications for the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases, and the emergence of precision medicines to treat metabolic diseases. Expand
Anti-Obesity Therapy: from Rainbow Pills to Polyagonists
TLDR
The historical pharmacological approaches to treat obesity and glucose intolerance are focused on and how the knowledge obtained by these studies led to the discovery of unimolecular polypharmacology is described. Expand
A Comprehensive Review of Novel Drug–Disease Models in Diabetes Drug Development
TLDR
A comprehensive overview of the quantitative approaches that have been reported since the 2008 review by Landersdorfer and Jusko in an increasing order of complexity, starting with glucose homeostasis models is provided. Expand
Role of Glucagon in Automated Insulin Delivery.
TLDR
This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating glucagon into dual-hormone automated hormone delivery systems and their applications in type 1 diabetes. Expand
Tripartite cell networks for glucose homeostasis.
TLDR
The hierarchical organization of tripartite cell networks, and recent biophysical modeling are introduced to systematically understand the oscillations and interactions of α, β, and δ cells and their phase coordination for the diagnosis of type II diabetes. Expand
Regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis by nuclear factor Y transcription factor in mice
TLDR
A previously unrecognized physiological function of NF-Y is revealed in controlling glucose metabolism by up-regulating the gluconeogenic genes Pck1 and G6pc and may offer an attractive therapeutic approach to manage type 2 diabetes. Expand
Replacing Pumps with Light Controlled Insulin Delivery
TLDR
The aim of this review is to summarize the development of the photoactivated depot (PAD) approach for the minimally invasive and continuously variable delivery of insulin by demonstrating that it can release native, bioactive insulin into diabetic animals in response to light signals from a small external LED light source. Expand
METABOLIC REGULATOR CRITICAL FOR PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
TABLE OF CONTENTS A Primary Role in Glucose Homeostasis...................................................................... Integral Part of Diabetes EtiologyExpand
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation in sheep alters prenatal muscle growth and development in offspring.
TLDR
It is found that poor maternal nutrition during gestation contributes to altered offspring muscle growth during early fetal development which persists throughout the fetal stage and is consistent with increased protein accretion, changes in muscle function and increased metabolic activity during myogenesis. Expand

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 141 REFERENCES
Glucagon and Type 2 Diabetes: the Return of the Alpha Cell
TLDR
This review focuses on the regulation of glucagon secretion by the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GIP and potential advantages and limitations of suppressing glucagon glands or antagonizing the glucagon receptor in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. Expand
Treating type 1 diabetes: from strategies for insulin delivery to dual hormonal control.
TLDR
It remains an ongoing task to identify the ideal routes and regimens of their delivery and potentially that of other hormones to restore the deficient and disordered hormonal environment of the pancreas to achieve a near normal metabolic state. Expand
Glucagonocentric restructuring of diabetes: a pathophysiologic and therapeutic makeover.
TLDR
It is concluded that glucose-responsive β cells normally regulate juxtaposed α cells and that without intraislet insulin, unregulated α cells hypersecrete glucagon, which directly causes the symptoms of diabetes, indicating that glucagon suppression or inactivation may provide therapeutic advantages over insulin monotherapy. Expand
Nutrient regulation of glucagon secretion: involvement in metabolism and diabetes
TLDR
The present review contains a summary of established concepts as well as new information about the regulation of α-cells by glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and other nutrients, focusing especially on glucagon release, glucagon synthesis and α-cell survival. Expand
Hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 2 diabetes requires insulin-resistant alpha cells
TLDR
T2D hyperglycemia requires unsuppressible hyperglucagonemia from insulin-resistant α cells and is prevented by glucagon suppression or blockade. Expand
Possible Contribution of Taurine to Distorted Glucagon Secretion in Intra-Islet Insulin Deficiency: A Metabolome Analysis Using a Novel α-Cell Model of Insulin-Deficient Diabetes
TLDR
Results indicate that the metabolic alterations induced by IRKD in α-cells, especially the increase of taurine, may lead to the distorted glucagon response inIRKD cells, suggesting the importance of taurusine in the paradoxical glucagons response and the resultant glucose instability in insulin-deficient diabetes. Expand
Paracrinology of islets and the paracrinopathy of diabetes
  • R. Unger, L. Orci
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
Based on the stable normoglycemia of mice with type 1 diabetes during suppression of glucagon with leptin, it is concluded that, in the absence of paracrine regulation of α-cells, tonic inhibition of β-cells improves the dysregulated glucose homeostasis. Expand
A review of artificial pancreas technologies with an emphasis on bi‐hormonal therapy
TLDR
The attributes of glucagon and its use in bi‐hormonal systems are focused on, with a view to preventing and treating hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. Expand
Dual‐hormone treatment with insulin and glucagon in patients with type 1 diabetes
TLDR
This review proposes dual‐hormone treatment with insulin and glucagon as a method for achieving near normalization of blood glucose levels without increasing hypoglycaemia frequency and weight gain. Expand
Glucagon regulates orexin A secretion in humans and rodents
TLDR
Glucagon inhibits OXA secretion in humans and animals, irrespective of changes in glucose or insulin levels, and may influence energy expenditure, body weight, food intake and glucose metabolism. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...