Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician.

  title={Glomalean fungi from the Ordovician.},
  author={Dirk Redecker and Robin B. Kodner and Linda E Graham},
  volume={289 5486},
Fossilized fungal hyphae and spores from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (with an age of about 460 million years) strongly resemble modern arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes). These fossils indicate that Glomales-like fungi were present at a time when the land flora most likely only consisted of plants on the bryophytic level. Thus, these fungi may have played a crucial role in facilitating the colonization of land by plants, and the fossils support molecular estimates of fungal… 
Molecular identification and phylogeny of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Ribosomal DNA sequences indicate that the diversity within the Glomales on the family and genus level is much higher than previously expected from morphology-based taxonomy.
Communities, populations and individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
This review critically examines the concepts of species, communities, populations and individuals of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
2 Molecular Approaches to Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Functioning
Fungi of the order Glomales (Zygomycota) form with the roots of most land plants a mutualistic symbiosis named arbuscular mycorrhiza which gives access for the plant to low mobile elements like phosphorus (Smith and Gianinazzi-Pearson 1988).
Occurrence of fungal structures in bryophytes of the boreo-nemoral zone
Fungal structures were observed in bryophyte stem and leaf tissues, and in rhizoids, and the AM association with brysophytes was observed to be symbiotic.
Germination shields in Scutellospora (Glomeromycota: Diversisporales, Gigasporaceae) from the 400 million-year-old Rhynie chert
Glomeromycotan spores from the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert provide the first evidence for germination shields in fossil fungi and demonstrate that this complex mode of germination was in place in
Glomus, the largest genus of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomales), is nonmonophyletic.
A new family, separate from the Glomaceae, is required to accommodate this group of organisms, initially named Diversisporaceae fam.
Co-occurrence of three fungal root symbionts in Gaultheria poeppiggi DC in Central Argentina
The evolutionarily derived position of Gaultheria within the Ericales may suggest that G. poeppiggi recently acquired the ability to form arbuscular mycorrhizas rather than having retained it from ancestral lines.
Evolutionary History of Terrestrial Pathogens and Endoparasites as Revealed in Fossils and Subfossils
Fossils, those that can be C14 dated (roughly under 50,000 years) and are identified by morphology as well as molecular and immunological techniques, provide time periods when humans became infected with various diseases.
Lichen-Like Symbiosis 600 Million Years Ago
The discovery of lichen-like fossils preserved in marine phosphorite of the Doushantuo Formation at Weng'an, South China indicate that fungi developed symbiotic partnerships with photoautotrophs before the evolution of vascular plants.
Molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, and evolution of Geosiphon pyriformis and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Comprehensive small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequence analyses allow the erection of a new, molecular phylogeny-based taxonomic system for the AMF, including Geosiphon (Geosphonaceae).


Silurian fungal remains: probable records of the Class Ascomycetes
It is suggested that these microfossils obtained from the late Silurian Burgsvik Sandstone represent the remains of the imperfect stages of terrestrial Ascomycetes, and provide evidence for an origin of this group at least contemporaneous with the earliest land plants.
The oldest fossil ascomycetes
The oldest ascomycetous fungi with flask-shaped ascocarps in thin-section preparations of the Lower Devonian Rhynie chert of Aberdeenshire, Scotland are found, underscoring the diversity of fungal-plant interactions early in the colonization of the land.
Four hundred-million-year-old vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae.
The discovery of arbuscules in Aglaophyton major, an Early Devonian land plant, provides unequivocal evidence that mycorrhizae were established >400 million years ago and indicates that nutrient transfer mutualism may have been in existence when plants invaded the land.
The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants
The structure and organization of vascular plants early land plants with conducting tissue lycopods sphenophytes ferns progymnosperms origin and evolution of the seed habit, and plant/animal interactions.
Caradocian land plant microfossils from Libya
The oldest paleontologically well-dated spore tetrads and cuti-clelike sheets of cells have been recovered from beds of Caradoc (mid-Ordovician) age from boreholes in the Murzuk (Murzuq) and Rhadames
Zoosporic Fungal Bodies in the Spores of the Devonian Fossil Vascular Plant, †Horneophyton
Kidston and Lang (6) established the concept of "\Hornea lignieri as a vascular plant ofthe Devonian possessing a columellate sporangium containing numerous trilete meiospores with reticulate
Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants
The phylogenetic analyses confirm the existence of three families within arbuscular fungi on the basis of morphological characters and obtain approximate dates for the divergence of major branche's on the phylogenetic tree, consistent with the hypothesis that VAM were instrumental in the colonization of land by ancient plants.
A novel clade of protistan parasites near the animal-fungal divergence.
  • M. Ragan, C. Goggin, R. Gutell
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
The results extend the understanding of the types of organisms from which metazoa and fungi may have evolved and establish a novel, statistically supported clade of small-subunit rRNA genes from these parasites.
A Middle Pennsylvanian Basidiomycete Mycelium with Clamp Connections
A fungal mycelium having clamp-connections and chlamydospores has been discovered within the wood of a Middle Pennsylvanian fern. At present the clamp-connection is a structure that occurs only in ...