Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses

@article{Ketchum2010GlobalIO,
  title={Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses},
  author={Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2010},
  volume={85}
}
Previous attempts to resolve plesiosaurian phylogeny are reviewed and a new phylogenetic data set of 66 taxa (67% of ingroup taxa examined directly) and 178 characters (eight new) is presented. We recover two key novel results: a monophyletic Plesiosauridae comprising Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus, Hydrorion brachypterygius, Microcleidus homalospondylus, Occitanosaurus tournemirensis and Seeleyosaurus guilelmiimperatoris; and five plesiosaurian taxa recovered outside the split between… 

Phylogenetic relationships of Upper Jurassic (Middle Volgian) plesiosaurians (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Agardhfjellet Formation of central Spitsbergen, Norway

The phylogenetic relationships of these five taxa were investigated based on data sets previously constructed for global plesiosaurian relationships, and yielded a tree topology closely conforming to the traditional plesioauroid and pliosauroid dichotomy, nesting Leptocleidia within the latter.

New information on Bobosaurus forojuliensis (Reptilia: Sauropterygia): implications for plesiosaurian evolution

Bobosaurus shows that the evolution of the plesiosaurian body plan from the ancestral pistosauroid grade was a step-wise process, and that some of the vertebral and appendicular specialisations of Jurassic and Cretaceous plesioaurians had already developed in the earliest Late Triassic.

A new record of the pliosaur Brachauchenius lucasi Williston, 1903 (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) of Turonian (Late Cretaceous) age, Morocco

Abstract The site of Goulmima (south Morocco) is well known for its rich marine fauna of Turonian age (Late Cretaceous). It has yielded a large variety of invertebrates but also of vertebrate taxa,

The Anatomy and Taxonomy of Macroplata tenuiceps (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic) of Warwickshire, United Kingdom

ABSTRACT A detailed re-description and revised diagnosis is given for Macroplata tenuiceps Swinton, 1930, a plesiosaurian known from a single almost complete specimen (BMNH R5488) from the Blue

Anatomy of Colymbosaurus megadeirus (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the U.K., and High Diversity Among Late Jurassic Plesiosauroids

Substantial differences between the atlas-axis complexes and cervical vertebrae of Kimmerosaurus langhami, ‘Plesiosaurus’ manselii, C. megadeirus, and specimens referred here to cf.

THE ANATOMY AND TAXONOMY OF MACROPLAT A TENUICEPS (SAUROPTERYGIA, PLESIOSAURIA) FROM THE HETTANGIAN (LOWER JURASSIC) OF WARWICKSHIRE,

A detailed re-description and revised diagnosis is given for Macroplata tenuiceps Swinton, 1930, a ple- siosaurian known from a single almost complete specimen (BMNH R5488) from the Blue Lias

Revision of polycotylid plesioaur systematics (sauropterygia plesiosauria) and description of the axial osteology of a juvenile polycotylid

A phylogenetic analysis incorporating a large taxon sampling from the Polycotylidae was used to parse out the evolutionary relationships among the taxa, and revealed that the two Wallace Ranch specimens form a well-supported clade, and feature a mosaic of character states found in currently described species, and may represent a new species.

A new elasmosaurid (sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the bearpaw formation (late Cretaceous, Maastrichtian) of Montana and the evolution of neck length in Elasmosauridae

Plesiosauria is a diverse clade of marine reptiles that have been studied since the early 19th century. However, phylogenetic relationships within the group have been contentious due to limited taxon
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 139 REFERENCES

A phylogeny of Plesiosauria (Sauropterygia) and its bearing on the systematic status of Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922

A cladistic analysis including Leptocleidus and a new, apparently morphologically similar specimen from Alberta, was undertaken to assess their phylogenetic position within Plesiosauria, and results indicate a basal dichotomous split into the traditionally recognized pliosauroidea and plesiosauroid clades.

A Cladistic Analysis and Taxonomic Revision of the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)

The Plesiosauria is found to by polyphyletic due to the inclusion of the Polycotylidae; this second clade is instead a member of the Plesiosauroidea, and thus more closely related to elasmosaurs than to other ‘pliosaurs’.

THE TAXONOMIC AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF THE PLESIOSAUROIDEA FROM THE LOWER JURASSIC POSIDONIA SHALE OF SOUTH‐WEST GERMANY

Two plesiosauroid species from the Posidonia shale of Holzmaden do not belong to Plesiosaurus but form new monotypic genera, and a short phylogenetic analysis shows that S. guilelmiimperatoris and Muraenosaurus are basal elasmosaurs.

Osteology of the Cryptocleidoid Plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with Comments on the Taxonomic Status of the Cimoliasauridae

New fossil material of Tatenectes is described, and the phylogenetic position of this genus is reevaluate based on all known material, with TatenECTes as being most closely related to the Oxford Clay taxon Kimmerosaurus.

Morphological and Taxonomic Clarification of the Genus Plesiosaurus

PLESIOSAURS FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS (CENOMANIAN–TURONIAN) TROPIC SHALE OF SOUTHERN UTAH, PART 2:POLYCOTYLIDAE

Abstract Recent fieldwork in the Tropic Shale of southern Utah has resulted in the recovery of several specimens of short-necked plesiosaurs including both polycotylid plesiosauroids and pliosaurids.

Systematics and phylogeny of Stegosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia)

A cladistic analysis of Stegosauria (the first to be based upon direct observation of all relevant specimens) is presented, which indicates that Tuojiangosaurus, Loricatosaurus and Paranthodon are sister taxa to Stegosaurus.

The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics

The first phylogenetic analysis dedicated to in-group relationships of pliosaurs allows us to hypothesise a number of well-supported lineages that correlate with marine biogeography and the palaeoecology of these reptiles.

A juvenile plesiosaur (Plesiosauria: Reptilia) from the Lower Lias (Hettangian: Lower Jurassic) of Lyme Regis, England: a pliosauroid-plesiosauroid intermediate?

A partial skull and skeleton of a small, juvenile plesiosaur from Lyme Regis, England is described and is thought to have been a predator on soft-bodied or lightly armoured prey, such as belemnoids, ammonites or small fish.

Cranial Anatomy and Taxonomy of Dolichorhynchops Bonneri New Combination, a Polycotylid (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria) from the Pierre Shale of Wyoming and South Dakota

This analysis reveals a stable sister-taxon relationship with Dolichorhynchops osborni, and a wide-ranging homoplasy among characters previously diagnostic among polycotylid genera challenges the alpha taxonomy of forms from the western interior seaway.
...