Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses

@article{Ketchum2010GlobalIO,
  title={Global interrelationships of Plesiosauria (Reptilia, Sauropterygia) and the pivotal role of taxon sampling in determining the outcome of phylogenetic analyses},
  author={Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2010},
  volume={85}
}
Previous attempts to resolve plesiosaurian phylogeny are reviewed and a new phylogenetic data set of 66 taxa (67% of ingroup taxa examined directly) and 178 characters (eight new) is presented. We recover two key novel results: a monophyletic Plesiosauridae comprising Plesiosaurus dolichodeirus, Hydrorion brachypterygius, Microcleidus homalospondylus, Occitanosaurus tournemirensis and Seeleyosaurus guilelmiimperatoris; and five plesiosaurian taxa recovered outside the split between… 
Phylogenetic relationships of Upper Jurassic (Middle Volgian) plesiosaurians (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Agardhfjellet Formation of central Spitsbergen, Norway
TLDR
The phylogenetic relationships of these five taxa were investigated based on data sets previously constructed for global plesiosaurian relationships, and yielded a tree topology closely conforming to the traditional plesioauroid and pliosauroid dichotomy, nesting Leptocleidia within the latter.
A new record of the pliosaur Brachauchenius lucasi Williston, 1903 (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) of Turonian (Late Cretaceous) age, Morocco
Abstract The site of Goulmima (south Morocco) is well known for its rich marine fauna of Turonian age (Late Cretaceous). It has yielded a large variety of invertebrates but also of vertebrate taxa,
New information on Bobosaurus forojuliensis (Reptilia: Sauropterygia): implications for plesiosaurian evolution
TLDR
Bobosaurus shows that the evolution of the plesiosaurian body plan from the ancestral pistosauroid grade was a step-wise process, and that some of the vertebral and appendicular specialisations of Jurassic and Cretaceous plesioaurians had already developed in the earliest Late Triassic.
The Anatomy and Taxonomy of Macroplata tenuiceps (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic) of Warwickshire, United Kingdom
ABSTRACT A detailed re-description and revised diagnosis is given for Macroplata tenuiceps Swinton, 1930, a plesiosaurian known from a single almost complete specimen (BMNH R5488) from the Blue
Anatomy of Colymbosaurus megadeirus (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of the U.K., and High Diversity Among Late Jurassic Plesiosauroids
TLDR
Substantial differences between the atlas-axis complexes and cervical vertebrae of Kimmerosaurus langhami, ‘Plesiosaurus’ manselii, C. megadeirus, and specimens referred here to cf.
THE ANATOMY AND TAXONOMY OF MACROPLAT A TENUICEPS (SAUROPTERYGIA, PLESIOSAURIA) FROM THE HETTANGIAN (LOWER JURASSIC) OF WARWICKSHIRE,
A detailed re-description and revised diagnosis is given for Macroplata tenuiceps Swinton, 1930, a ple- siosaurian known from a single almost complete specimen (BMNH R5488) from the Blue Lias
Zarafasaura oceanis, a new elasmosaurid (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Maastrichtian Phosphates of Morocco and the palaeobiogeography of latest Cretaceous plesiosaurs
Abstract Though the Maastrichtian Phosphates of Morocco have yielded very rich marine vertebrate assemblages, plesiosaurs remain very scarce in these strata. The only hitherto recognized taxon was
Revision of polycotylid plesioaur systematics (sauropterygia plesiosauria) and description of the axial osteology of a juvenile polycotylid
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis incorporating a large taxon sampling from the Polycotylidae was used to parse out the evolutionary relationships among the taxa, and revealed that the two Wallace Ranch specimens form a well-supported clade, and feature a mosaic of character states found in currently described species, and may represent a new species.
Lindwurmia, a new genus of Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the earliest Jurassic of Halberstadt, northwest Germany
TLDR
Phylogenetic analyses variably place Lindwurmia as sister taxon to Anningasaura and in a basal position to all other plesiosaurians or recover it among rhomaleosaurids.
A postcranial skeleton of an elasmosaurid plesiosaur from the Maastrichtian of central Chile, with comments on the affinities of Late Cretaceous plesiosauroids from the Weddellian Biogeographic Province
An almost complete postcranial skeleton recovered from late Maastrichtian beds of central Chile, which can be confidently referred to the clade Elasmosauridae (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauroidea), is
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 140 REFERENCES
A phylogeny of Plesiosauria (Sauropterygia) and its bearing on the systematic status of Leptocleidus Andrews, 1922
TLDR
A cladistic analysis including Leptocleidus and a new, apparently morphologically similar specimen from Alberta, was undertaken to assess their phylogenetic position within Plesiosauria, and results indicate a basal dichotomous split into the traditionally recognized pliosauroidea and plesiosauroid clades.
A Cladistic Analysis and Taxonomic Revision of the Plesiosauria (Reptilia: Sauropterygia)
TLDR
The Plesiosauria is found to by polyphyletic due to the inclusion of the Polycotylidae; this second clade is instead a member of the Plesiosauroidea, and thus more closely related to elasmosaurs than to other ‘pliosaurs’.
PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF A NEW PLESIOSAUR (REPTILIA: SAUROPTERYGIA) FROM THE TOARCIAN OF HOLZMADEN, GERMANY
TLDR
A phylogenetic analysis places Plesiopterys as the sister group of the Plesiosauroidea, and as such the taxon is the most basal taxon yet known on the branch leading to this major clade.
PRELIMINARY DESCRIPTION AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF A NEW PLESIOSAUR (REPTILIA: SAUROPTERYGIA) FROM THE TOARCIAN OF HOLZMADEN, GERMANY
TLDR
A faunal comparison between Holzmaden and the Lower Toarcian deposits on the Yorkshire coast of England concludes that the HolZmaden fauna is more plesiomorphic than the roughly coeval Yorkshire fauna in two of three plesiosaur subclades.
THE TAXONOMIC AND PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF THE PLESIOSAUROIDEA FROM THE LOWER JURASSIC POSIDONIA SHALE OF SOUTH‐WEST GERMANY
TLDR
Two plesiosauroid species from the Posidonia shale of Holzmaden do not belong to Plesiosaurus but form new monotypic genera, and a short phylogenetic analysis shows that S. guilelmiimperatoris and Muraenosaurus are basal elasmosaurs.
Osteology of the Cryptocleidoid Plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with Comments on the Taxonomic Status of the Cimoliasauridae
ABSTRACT Recent field work in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming has recovered significant new material of the plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis. The majority of cryptocleidoid plesiosaurs have been
Morphological and Taxonomic Clarification of the Genus Plesiosaurus
TLDR
It is elaborates that only the German Lower Jurassic, notably the Holzmaden Lagerstatte, and the French upper Toarcian currently contain taxa that are potentially valid specific variants of Plesiosaurus.
PLESIOSAURS FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS (CENOMANIAN–TURONIAN) TROPIC SHALE OF SOUTHERN UTAH, PART 2:POLYCOTYLIDAE
Abstract Recent fieldwork in the Tropic Shale of southern Utah has resulted in the recovery of several specimens of short-necked plesiosaurs including both polycotylid plesiosauroids and pliosaurids.
Systematics and phylogeny of Stegosauria (Dinosauria: Ornithischia)
TLDR
A cladistic analysis of Stegosauria (the first to be based upon direct observation of all relevant specimens) is presented, which indicates that Tuojiangosaurus, Loricatosaurus and Paranthodon are sister taxa to Stegosaurus.
The skull of the giant predatory pliosaur Rhomaleosaurus cramptoni: implications for plesiosaur phylogenetics
TLDR
The first phylogenetic analysis dedicated to in-group relationships of pliosaurs allows us to hypothesise a number of well-supported lineages that correlate with marine biogeography and the palaeoecology of these reptiles.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...