Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

  title={Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism},
  author={Peter N Taylor and Diana Albrecht and Anna S. Scholz and Gala Gutierrez-Buey and John H. Lazarus and Colin M. Dayan and Onyebuchi E. Okosieme},
  journal={Nature Reviews Endocrinology},
Thyroid hormones are essential for growth, neuronal development, reproduction and regulation of energy metabolism. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are common conditions with potentially devastating health consequences that affect all populations worldwide. Iodine nutrition is a key determinant of thyroid disease risk; however, other factors, such as ageing, smoking status, genetic susceptibility, ethnicity, endocrine disruptors and the advent of novel therapeutics, including immune… 
The impact of the micronutrient iodine in health and diseases
The goal of this review is to analyze and discuss the different aspects of iodine nutrition for human health comprising its biological role through thyroid hormones, pathogen control, and the regulation of the intestinal microbiota.
Morphology Aspects of Hypothyroidism
Hypothyroidism has numerous etiologies, some of them are originated on the thyroid itself and some others are of extrathyroid origin, with variable manifestations, and is classified as primary, secondary, tertiary and peripheral.
Diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism in the elderly
Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism in the elderly should be undertaken with care, guided by age and the degree of SCH: a TSH higher than 10 mU/l seems a reasonable threshold, though it should be regularly re-evaluated, while the LT4 dose needs to be tailored, taking into account the patient’s health condition and the potential presence of dyslipidemia as well as other metabolic derangements.
Hypertension in Thyroid Disorders
The review gives a synopsis of knowledge how thyroid hormone metabolism and functional thyroid diseases affect the cardiovascular system, their negative impact and causative role in the development of hypertension.
Hypothyroidism and its effect on serum vitamin D and iron among adult female: A review from Middle East perspective
Hypothyroidism is a common but under-recognized and under-diagnosed condition in the Persian Gulf countries and it is important to identify bi-deficiency so that doctors can treat them earlier and can reduce the deficiency-related complications.
Overt and Subclinical Hypothyroidism in the Elderly: When to Treat?
It is important to stress the need of educating the patient for a correct administration of LT4, particularly when poly-therapy is in place, and the importance of a tailored therapeutic approach and follow-up, to avoid overtreatment.
Selenium in Hyperthyroidism
Micronutrients that play a role in thyroid hormone synthesis and maintain thyroid function in addition to selenium are iodine, iron, zinc, and vitamin A, which may provide health benefits in patient with hyperthyroid.
Thyroid disorders and cardiovascular manifestations: an update
The physiologic role of thyroid hormones on cardiovascular system is described, cardiovascular manifestations in patients with thyroid disorders are presented, emphasizing in molecular mechanisms and biochemical pathways, and current knowledge of treatment options is summarized.
Prevalence and etiology of thyroid disease: A review
The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in Pakistan was observed to be 5.1% while sub clinical hyper thyroidroidism accounted for 5.8%, however hypothyroidism was observation to be 4.1%" and 5.4% in case of sub clinical hypothy thyroid disease and in female population as compared to the males.
Graves’ disease
The epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of Graves’ disease are discussed, the need for better therapeutics for its management is highlighted and a number of important advances are on the horizon.


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