Today’s knowledge of worldwide species diversity of 19 families of aquatic Diptera in Continental Waters is presented. Nevertheless, we have to face for certain in most groups a restricted knowledge about distribution, ecology and systematic, particularly in the tropical environments. At the same time we realize a dramatically decline or even lack of specialists being able, having the time or the opportunity to extend or even secure the present information. The respective families with approximate numbers of aquatic species are: Blephariceridae (308), Deuterophlebiidae (14), Nyphomyiidae (7), Psychodidae (∼2.000), Scatopsidae (∼5), Tanyderidae (41), Ptychopteridae (69), Dixidae (173), Corethrellidae (97), Chaoboridae (∼50), Thaumaleidae (∼170), Ceratopogonidae (∼6.000), Stratiomyidae (∼43), Empididae (∼660), Lonchopteridae (2), Syrphidae (∼1.080), Sciomyzidae (∼190), Ephydridae (∼1.500), Muscidae (∼870). Numbers of aquatic species will surely increase with increased ecological and taxonomical efforts.