Global diversity and geography of soil fungi

  title={Global diversity and geography of soil fungi},
  author={Leho Tedersoo and Mohammad Bahram and Sergei P{\~o}lme and Urmas K{\~o}ljalg and Nourou S. Yorou and Ravi L C Wijesundera and Luis Villarreal Ruiz and A{\'i}da M. Vasco-Palacios and Pham Quang Thu and Ave Suija and Matthew E. Smith and Cathy Sharp and Erki Saluveer and Alessandro Saitta and Miguel A. Rosas and Taavi Riit and David A. Ratkowsky and Karin Pritsch and Kadri P{\~o}ldmaa and Meike Piepenbring and Cherdchai Phosri and Marko Peterson and Kaarin Parts and Kadri P{\"a}rtel and Eveli Otsing and Eduardo R. Nouhra and Andr{\'e}-Ledoux Njouonkou and R. Henrik Nilsson and Luis N. Morgado and Jordan R. Mayor and Tom W. May and Luiza Majuakim and D. Jean Lodge and Su See Lee and Karl-Henrik Larsson and Petr Kohout and Kentaro Hosaka and Indrek Hiiesalu and Terry W. Henkel and Helery Harend and Liang-dong Guo and Alina G. Greslebin and Gwen-A{\"e}lle Grelet and J{\'o}zsef Geml and Genevieve M Gates and William David Dunstan and Chris Dunk and Rein Drenkhan and John D W Dearnaley and Andr{\'e} De Kesel and Tan Dang and Xin Chen and Franz Buegger and Francis Q. Brearley and Gregory M. Bonito and Sten Anslan and Sandra E. Abell and Kessy Abarenkov},
Introduction The kingdom Fungi is one of the most diverse groups of organisms on Earth, and they are integral ecosystem agents that govern soil carbon cycling, plant nutrition, and pathology. Fungi are widely distributed in all terrestrial ecosystems, but the distribution of species, phyla, and functional groups has been poorly documented. On the basis of 365 global soil samples from natural ecosystems, we determined the main drivers and biogeographic patterns of fungal diversity and community… 

Tree diversity and species identity effects on soil fungi, protists and animals are context dependent

This work developed a DNA metabarcoding approach to identify the major eukaryote groups directly from soil with roughly species-level resolution and revealed that on a local scale, soil resources and tree species have stronger effect on diversity of soil biota than tree species richness per se.

A few Ascomycota taxa dominate soil fungal communities worldwide

Soil fungi play essential roles in ecosystems worldwide and have implications for the development of strategies to preserve them and the ecosystem functions they provide, and these findings constitute a major advance in understanding of the ecology of fungi.

Temperature drives plant and soil microbial diversity patterns across an elevation gradient from the Andes to the Amazon

This work provides the first evidence of co-ordinated temperature-driven patterns in the diversity and distribution of plants, soil bacteria and fungi in tropical ecosystems, and suggests that, across landscape scales of relatively constant soil pH, shared patterns and environmental drivers of plant and microbial communities can occur.

Biodiversity of leaf litter fungi in streams along a latitudinal gradient.

Structure and function of the global topsoil microbiome

It is shown that bacterial, but not fungal, genetic diversity is highest in temperate habitats and that microbial gene composition varies more strongly with environmental variables than with geographic distance, and that the relative contributions of these microorganisms to global nutrient cycling varies spatially.

Microbes follow Humboldt: temperature drives plant and soil microbial diversity patterns from the Amazon to the Andes

The first evidence of coordinated temperature‐driven patterns in the diversity and distribution of three major biotic groups in tropical ecosystems: soil bacteria, fungi, and plants is provided.



Towards global patterns in the diversity and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

A global analysis to disentangle the global determinants of diversity and community composition for ectomycorrhizal fungi-microbial symbionts that play key roles in plant nutrition in most temperate and many tropical forest ecosystems provides useful biogeographic and ecological hypotheses for explaining the distribution of fungi.

Endemism and functional convergence across the North American soil mycobiome

This work isolates different geographic and local processes hypothesized to shape fungal community composition and activity in pine forests across the continental United States and shows that the principal ecological processes controlling community structure and function operate at different scales.

Global biogeography of highly diverse protistan communities in soil

Soil protistan communities were highly diverse, approaching the extreme diversity of their bacterial counterparts across the same sites, and like bacterial taxa, protistan taxa were not globally distributed, and the composition of these communities diverged considerably across large geographic distances.

A first comprehensive census of fungi in soil reveals both hyperdiversity and fine-scale niche partitioning

This work achieves the first exhaustive enumeration of fungi in soil, recording 1002 taxa in this system, and shows that the fungus-to-plant ratio in Picea mariana forest soils from interior Alaska is at least 17:1 and is regionally stable.

Soil bacterial and fungal communities across a pH gradient in an arable soil

Soils collected across a long-term liming experiment were used to investigate the direct influence of pH on the abundance and composition of the two major soil microbial taxa, fungi and bacteria, and both the relative abundance and diversity of bacteria were positively related to pH.

Soil rotifer communities are extremely diverse globally but spatially autocorrelated locally

This work developed specific primers for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of bdelloid rotifers and amplified and cloned sequences using a nested sampling scheme that represented local to global scales, and rejected the hypothesis that communities of Rotifers are the same across even fairly small geographic distances.

Linking litter calcium, earthworms and soil properties: a common garden test with 14 tree species

Differences in litter calcium concentrations among tree species resulted in profound changes in soil acidity and fertility that were similar within and among tree groups, and were associated with increased native earthworm abundance and diversity.

Evolutionary histories of soil fungi are reflected in their large-scale biogeography.

This study used high-throughput sequencing to examine the large-scale distributions of soil fungi and their relation to evolutionary history and found support for the Tropical Conservatism Hypothesis, which predicts that ancestral fungal groups should be more restricted to tropical latitudes and conditions than would more recently derived groups.

Rich and cold: diversity, distribution and drivers of fungal communities in patterned‐ground ecosystems of the North American Arctic

The results suggest that the Arctic does not host a unique mycoflora, while Arctic fungi are highly sensitive to climate and vegetation, with potential to migrate rapidly as global change unfolds.