Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

  title={Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health},
  author={David Tilman and Michael A. Clark},
Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of… 
The Diet, Health, and Environment Trilemma
It is discussed how shifts to healthier diets— such as some Mediterranean, pescetarian, vegetarian, and vegan diets—could reduce incidence of diet-related diseases and improve environmental outcomes, and how other interventions to food systems that use known technologies and management techniques would improved environmental outcomes.
Sustainable nutrition: Opportunities, risks and uncertainties from environmental and health perspectives
An interdisciplinary approach is used which combines methods originating from the fields of environmental-, nutritional- and health- studies, while the nutritional and health effects of food consumption are analyzed by using nutrient calculation and nutrition epidemiology.
Healthy diets as a climate change mitigation strategy
The Role of Healthy Diets in Environmentally Sustainable Food Systems
No single “silver bullet” policy solution exists to shift food choices toward sustainable healthy diets and instead, simultaneous action by the public sector, private sector, and governments will be needed.
Can Healthier Food Demand be Linked to Farming Systems’ Sustainability? The Case of the Mediterranean Diet
A multidisciplinary literature review which combines evidence from nutrition and health sciences with that from environmental, agrarian and sustainability studies on the impacts of foods and dietary patterns on the environment, ecosystems and rural landscape highlights the Mediterranean diet as a healthier dietary pattern whose promotion could be beneficial to recover or maintain the sustainability of Mediterranean rural landscape.
The environmental impacts of rapidly changing diets and their nutritional quality in China
China’s fast-paced socio-economic transformation has been accompanied by shifting diets towards higher shares of non-starchy foods. Such trends change the dietary health risks but also potentially
Synergies between healthy and sustainable diets
In its efforts to meet greenhouse gas emissions targets, international policy has focused almost exclusively on the energy sector. Yet, as the global population and per capita demand for food both
Small targeted dietary changes can yield substantial gains for human health and the environment
It is indicated that substituting only 10% of daily caloric intake from beef and processed meat for fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes and selected seafood could offer substantial health improvements of 48 min gained per person per day and a 33% reduction in dietary carbon footprint.


The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet.
Data from Asian nations, where diet structure is rapidly changing, suggest that diets higher in fats and sweeteners are also more diverse and more varied, and may be governed not by physiological mechanisms but by the amount of fat available in the food supply.
Climate benefits of changing diet
Climate change mitigation policies tend to focus on the energy sector, while the livestock sector receives surprisingly little attention, despite the fact that it accounts for 18% of the greenhouse
Food consumption trends and drivers
  • J. Kearney
  • Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed
Diet and the environment: does what you eat matter?
It is found that a nonvegetarian diet exacts a higher cost on the environment relative to a vegetarian Diet, and this contribution came from the consumption of beef in the diet.
A global response to a global problem: the epidemic of overnutrition.
A concerted multisectoral approach, involving the use of policy, education and trade mechanisms, is necessary to address the global epidemics of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.
Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture
Per capita demand for crops, when measured as caloric or protein content of all crops combined, has been a similarly increasing function of per capita real income since 1960 and forecasts a 100–110% increase in global crop demand from 2005 to 2050.
Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating.
A food pyramid that reflects Mediterranean dietary traditions, which historically have been associated with good health, is presented, which describes a dietary pattern that is attractive for its famous palatability as well as for its health benefits.
Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries.
Rapid increases in the rates of obesity and overweight are widely documented, from urban and rural areas in the poorest countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia to populations in countries with higher income levels.