Global and regional distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and recombinants in 2004

  title={Global and regional distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and recombinants in 2004},
  author={Joris Hemelaar and Eleanor Gouws and Peter Ghys and Saladin Osmanov},
Objective:To estimate the global and regional distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in 2004. Design:A study was conducted in which molecular epidemiological data on HIV-1 subtype distribution in individual countries were combined with country-specific estimates of the number of people living with HIV. Methods:HIV-1 subtype data were collected for 23 874 HIV-1 samples from 70 countries, which together accounted for 89% of all people living with HIV worldwide in 2004. The proportions of… 

Global trends in molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 during 2000–2007

The global and regional distributions of individual subtypes and recombinants are broadly stable, although CRFs may play an increasing role in the HIV pandemic.

Changes in the distribution of HIV type 1 subtypes D and A in Rakai District, Uganda between 1994 and 2002.

Over this 8-year period, the overall viral population in this region evolved toward the less virulent HIV-1A strain, most likely as a consequence of the faster disease progression and lower transmissibility of HIV- 1D.

HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies

HIV-1 multiple infections and ongoing recombination contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of circulating HIV-1 in Tanzania and have important implications for vaccine design and the development of therapeutic strategies.

Diversity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Subtypes in Western Kenya

The study showed increasing HIV-1 diversity along the Kenya- Uganda border with the emergence of A1/C and A1-D recombinants.

HIV-1 Diversity in Brazil

The elevated number of HIV-1 subtypes cocirculating as well as diverse recombinant viruses observed in this review is consistent with an old mature prior epidemic in Brazil and represents a tangible challenge for future vaccine development, as well for the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment and diagnostic tests.

The HIV type 1 epidemic in Bulgaria involves multiple subtypes and is sustained by continuous viral inflow from West and East European countries.

The central geographic location of Bulgaria, the substantial genetic heterogeneity of the epidemic with multiple subtypes, and the significant viral flow observed to and from the Balkan countries have the potential to modify the current HIV-1 epidemiological structure in Europe and highlight the importance of more extensive and continuous monitoring of the infection in the Balkans.

Increasing diversity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 subtypes circulating in Australia.

The observation of increasing numbers of females and heterosexual males infected with non-subtype B viruses, the majority imported through migration and travel to countries where there is a high prevalence of HIV, suggests a targeted public health message may be required to prevent further increases within these two groups.

Dynamics and molecular evolution of HIV-1 strains in Sicily among antiretroviral naïve patients.

A Comprehensive Mapping of HIV-1 Genotypes in Various Risk Groups and Regions across China Based on a Nationwide Molecular Epidemiologic Survey

This study provides the first comprehensive baseline data on the diversity and characteristics of HIV/AIDS epidemic in China, reflecting unique region- and risk group-specific transmission dynamics.



Estimated Global Distribution and Regional Spread of HIV‐1 Genetic Subtypes in the Year 2000

Combined analysis of data based on the global HIV/AIDS surveillance and molecular virology studies provides a useful model to monitor the dynamics of the global spread of HIV‐1 subtypes and CRFs on regional and country levels‐the information of potential importance for diagnosis and treatment of HIV/ AIDS, as well as for the development globally effective HIV vaccines.

Genetic diversity of HIV-1 in western Kenya: subtype-specific differences in mother-to-child transmission

MTCT appears to be more common among mothers infected with sub type D compared with subtype A, and such differences in MTCT frequency may be caused by altered cellular tropism for placental cell types.

Influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype on mother-to-child transmission.

Findings show no significant differences in the mother-to-child transmissibility of HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D and detected recombinants forms.

Differences in perinatal transmission among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes.

These findings provide the first evidence that HIV-1 genetic subtypes may play a role in rates of vertical transmission in an African setting and are shown to be associated with differential risk for vertical transmission.

Comparative response of African HIV-1-infected individuals to highly active antiretroviral therapy

The initial virological and immunological responses of the African and European cohorts to HAART were similar; although the longer-termVirological response was poorer in the African cohort, which may be related to adherence.

Identification of a Novel HIV-1 Circulating ADG Intersubtype Recombinant Form (CRF19_cpx) in Cuba

This study analyzes near complete genomes of 4 epidemiologically unlinked viruses from Cuba to define a new CRF (CRF19_cpx), as a second novel CRF of African origin circulating in Cuba, to identify putative representative viruses of its parental strains, and to characterize a unique CRF18/ CRF19 recombinant virus.

Drug-selected resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in antiretroviral-naive adults with established human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Drug-selected mutations or non-B subtypes were detected in a substantial portion of antiretroviral-naive adults who had been infected for at least 6 months, and indicated infection for >/=6 months.

Effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope subtypes A and D on disease progression in a large cohort of HIV-1-positive persons in Uganda.

In Africa, envelope subtype D is associated with faster disease progression, compared with subtype A and with a lower CD4 cell count during follow-up, according to a multivariate analysis of survival.

Detection of high frequencies of HIV-1 cross-subtype reactive CD8 T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected Kenyans

High frequencies of HIV-1 cross-subtype-reactive peripheral CD8 T cells can be detected in individuals from a multiple subtype endemic region, providing an incentive for vaccine advancement in such locations.