Global and regional distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and recombinants in 2004

  title={Global and regional distribution of HIV-1 genetic subtypes and recombinants in 2004},
  author={Joris Hemelaar and Eleanor Gouws and Peter Ghys and Saladin Osmanov},
Objective:To estimate the global and regional distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants in 2004. Design:A study was conducted in which molecular epidemiological data on HIV-1 subtype distribution in individual countries were combined with country-specific estimates of the number of people living with HIV. Methods:HIV-1 subtype data were collected for 23 874 HIV-1 samples from 70 countries, which together accounted for 89% of all people living with HIV worldwide in 2004. The proportions of… 
Global trends in molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 during 2000–2007
The global and regional distributions of individual subtypes and recombinants are broadly stable, although CRFs may play an increasing role in the HIV pandemic.
Changes in the distribution of HIV type 1 subtypes D and A in Rakai District, Uganda between 1994 and 2002.
Over this 8-year period, the overall viral population in this region evolved toward the less virulent HIV-1A strain, most likely as a consequence of the faster disease progression and lower transmissibility of HIV- 1D.
HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies
HIV-1 multiple infections and ongoing recombination contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of circulating HIV-1 in Tanzania and have important implications for vaccine design and the development of therapeutic strategies.
Diversity of HIV-1 subtype C strains isolated in Romania.
  • S. Paraschiv, B. Foley, D. Otelea
  • Biology
    Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
  • 2011
HIV-1 Diversity in Brazil
The elevated number of HIV-1 subtypes cocirculating as well as diverse recombinant viruses observed in this review is consistent with an old mature prior epidemic in Brazil and represents a tangible challenge for future vaccine development, as well for the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment and diagnostic tests.
The HIV type 1 epidemic in Bulgaria involves multiple subtypes and is sustained by continuous viral inflow from West and East European countries.
The central geographic location of Bulgaria, the substantial genetic heterogeneity of the epidemic with multiple subtypes, and the significant viral flow observed to and from the Balkan countries have the potential to modify the current HIV-1 epidemiological structure in Europe and highlight the importance of more extensive and continuous monitoring of the infection in the Balkans.
Genetic and phylogenetic evolution of HIV-1 in a low subtype heterogeneity epidemic: the Italian example
The continuous molecular evolution of the B subtype HIV-1 isolates, characteristic of a long-lasting epidemic, together with the introduction of new subtypes as well as recombinant forms may have significant implications for diagnostic, treatment, and vaccine development.
Increasing diversity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 subtypes circulating in Australia.
The observation of increasing numbers of females and heterosexual males infected with non-subtype B viruses, the majority imported through migration and travel to countries where there is a high prevalence of HIV, suggests a targeted public health message may be required to prevent further increases within these two groups.
Dynamics and molecular evolution of HIV-1 strains in Sicily among antiretroviral naïve patients.


Estimated Global Distribution and Regional Spread of HIV‐1 Genetic Subtypes in the Year 2000
Combined analysis of data based on the global HIV/AIDS surveillance and molecular virology studies provides a useful model to monitor the dynamics of the global spread of HIV‐1 subtypes and CRFs on regional and country levels‐the information of potential importance for diagnosis and treatment of HIV/ AIDS, as well as for the development globally effective HIV vaccines.
Similar rate of disease progression among individuals infected with HIV-1 genetic subtypes A-D.
Neither the genetic subtype of the virus nor the ethnicity of the host appear to be major determinants of disease progression in HIV-1.
Genetic diversity of HIV-1 in western Kenya: subtype-specific differences in mother-to-child transmission
MTCT appears to be more common among mothers infected with sub type D compared with subtype A, and such differences in MTCT frequency may be caused by altered cellular tropism for placental cell types.
Influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype on mother-to-child transmission.
Findings show no significant differences in the mother-to-child transmissibility of HIV-1 subtypes A, C and D and detected recombinants forms.
Differences in perinatal transmission among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genotypes.
These findings provide the first evidence that HIV-1 genetic subtypes may play a role in rates of vertical transmission in an African setting and are shown to be associated with differential risk for vertical transmission.
Comparative response of African HIV-1-infected individuals to highly active antiretroviral therapy
The initial virological and immunological responses of the African and European cohorts to HAART were similar; although the longer-termVirological response was poorer in the African cohort, which may be related to adherence.
Drug-selected resistance mutations and non-B subtypes in antiretroviral-naive adults with established human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Drug-selected mutations or non-B subtypes were detected in a substantial portion of antiretroviral-naive adults who had been infected for at least 6 months, and indicated infection for >/=6 months.
Cellular immunity to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clades: relevance to HIV-1 vaccine trials in Uganda.
Despite the presence of broad cross-clade recognition, the CTL responses to the infecting viral clade were highest in most people, lending justification to the use of clade B-based immunogens in the current phase 1 vaccine trial in Uganda.
Protease sequences from HIV-1 group M subtypes A–H reveal distinct amino acid mutation patterns associated with protease resistance in protease inhibitor-naive individuals worldwide
The high prevalence of PRI-associated substitutions represent natural polymorphisms occurring inPRI-naive patients infected with HIV-1 strains of subtypes A−H and the significance of distinct mutation patterns identified for subtype B and non-B strains warrants further clinical evaluation.