Global Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data

  title={Global Mineralogical and Aqueous Mars History Derived from OMEGA/Mars Express Data},
  author={J. P. Bibring and Y. Langevin and John F. Mustard and François Poulet and Raymond E. Arvidson and Aline Gendrin and B. Gondet and Nicolas Mangold and Patrick Pinet and François Forget and Michel Berthé and Cécile Gomez and Denis Jouglet and Alain Soufflot and M. Vincendon and Michel Combes and Pierre Drossart and Thérèse Encrenaz and Thierry Fouchet and Riccardo Merchiorri and Giancarlo Belluci and Francesca Altieri and Vittorio Formisano and F. Capaccioni and Pricilla Cerroni and Angioletta Coradini and Sergio Fonti and Oleg I. Korablev and Volodia Kottsov and Nikolai Ignatiev and Vassili I. Moroz and Dimitri Titov and Ludmilla Zasova and Damien Loiseau and Patrick Pinet and Sylvain Dout{\'e} and Bernard Schmitt and Christophe Sotin and Ernst Hauber and Harald Hoffmann and Ralf Jaumann and Uwe Keller and Raymond E. Arvidson and Thomas C. Duxbury and François Forget and Gerhard Neukum},
  pages={400 - 404}
Global mineralogical mapping of Mars by the Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité (OMEGA) instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft provides new information on Mars' geological and climatic history. Phyllosilicates formed by aqueous alteration very early in the planet's history (the “phyllocian” era) are found in the oldest terrains; sulfates were formed in a second era (the “theiikian” era) in an acidic environment. Beginning about 3.5… 
Aqueous environmental history of Mars revealed by mineralogy and geochemistry of outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks
Recent high-resolution spectral images and in-situ observations have revealed more than 1000 outcrops of diverse aqueous mineral deposits on Mars. Layered deposits of phyllosilicates (and carbonates)
Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument
The diversity of phyllosilicate mineralogy is expanded with the identification of kaolinite, chlorite and illite or muscovite, and a new class of hydrated silicate (hydrated silica).
Zhurong reveals recent aqueous activities in Utopia Planitia, Mars
The Mars’ climate is cold and dry in the most recent epoch, and liquid water activities are considered extremely limited. Previous orbital data only show sporadic hydrous minerals in the northern
Hydrous minerals on Mars as seen by the CRISM and OMEGA imaging spectrometers: Updated global view
The surface of Mars has preserved the record of early environments in which its basaltic crust was altered by liquid water. These aqueous environments have survived in the form of hydrological
Early Mars Environments Revealed Through Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Alteration Minerals
While unstable on present-day Mars, liquid water was an important geologic agent in Mars' past. This work investigates the nature and timing of aqueous processes on ancient Mars, focusing on the
Low Hesperian PCO2 constrained from in situ mineralogical analysis at Gale Crater, Mars
Estimating the atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 coinciding with a long-lived lake system in Gale Crater at ∼3.5 Ga offers a ground-based reference point for the evolution of martian atmospheric CO2 and implies that other mechanisms of warming Hesperian Mars, or processes that allowed for confined hydrological activity under cold conditions, must be sought.
In Situ Geochronology on Mars and the Development of Future Instrumentation
These experiments determined that the detrital minerals in the sedimentary rocks of Gale are ∼4 Ga, consistent with their origin in the basalts surrounding the crater, which may mark the closure of aqueous activity at Gale Crater.
What Geology and Mineralogy Tell Us About Water on Mars
Since Mars has attracted much interest as a potentially accessible habitable planet, the greatest number of spacecraft has been sent to this planet among any of the other extraterrestrial bodies. The
A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging
Mineralogy of the Martian Surface
The past fifteen years of orbital infrared spectroscopy and in situ exploration have led to a new understanding of the composition and history of Mars. Globally, Mars has a basaltic upper crust


Olivine and Pyroxene Diversity in the Crust of Mars
Olivine- and HCP-rich regions are found in deposits that span the age range of geologic units, however, LCP- rich regions are find only in the ancient Noachian-aged units, which suggests that melts for these deposits were derived from a mantle depleted in aluminum and calcium.
Mars Surface Diversity as Revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations
The OMEGA investigation, on board the European Space Agency Mars Express mission, has identified and mapped mafic iron-bearing silicates of both the northern and southern crust, localized concentrations of hydrated phyllosilicates and sulfates but no carbonates, and ices and frosts with a water-ice composition of the north polar perennial cap.
In Situ Evidence for an Ancient Aqueous Environment at Meridiani Planum, Mars
The geologic record at Meridiani Planum suggests that conditions were suitable for biological activity for a period of time in martian history.
New Perspectives on Ancient Mars
Mars was most active during its first billion years, and the Tharsis province became a focus for volcanism, deformation, and outgassing of water and carbon dioxide in quantities possibly sufficient to induce episodes of climate warming.
Ancient Geodynamics and Global-Scale Hydrology on Mars
The release of carbon dioxide and water accompanying the emplacement of Tharsis magmas may have sustained a warmer climate than at present, enabling the formation of ancient valley networks and fluvial landscape denudation in and adjacent to the large-scale trough.
Alteration Assemblages in Martian Meteorites: Implications for Near-Surface Processes
The SNC (Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny) meteorites have recorded interactions between martian crustal fluids and the parent igneous rocks. The resultant secondary minerals — which comprise up to ∼1
Mars' volatile and climate history
This work piece together the relevant observations into a coherent view of the evolution of the martian climate, focusing in particular on the observations that provide the strongest constraints.
Perennial water ice identified in the south polar cap of Mars
This work presents the first direct identification and mapping of both carbon dioxide and water ice in the martian high southern latitudes, at a resolution of 2 km, during the local summer, when the extent of the polar ice is at its minimum.
Sulfates in Martian Layered Terrains: The OMEGA/Mars Express View
Outcrops in Valles Marineris, Margaritifer Sinus, and Terra Meridiani show evidence for kieserite, gypsum, and polyhydrated sulfates, which constitute direct records of the past aqueous activity on Mars.
Mineralogic and compositional properties of Martian soil and dust: Results from Mars Pathfinder
Mars Pathfinder obtained multispectral, elemental, magnetic, and physical measurements of soil and dust at the Sagan Memorial Station during the course of its 83 sol mission. We describe initial