Global Distribution of Neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey

@article{Feldman2002GlobalDO,
  title={Global Distribution of Neutrons from Mars: Results from Mars Odyssey},
  author={William Charles Feldman and William V. Boynton and Robert L. Tokar and Thomas H. Prettyman and Olivier Gasnault and Steven W. Squyres and Richard Elphic and David J. Lawrence and S. L. Lawson and Sylvestre Maurice and Gregg Mckinney and K. R. Moore and R. C. Reedy},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={297},
  pages={75 - 78}
}
Global distributions of thermal, epithermal, and fast neutron fluxes have been mapped during late southern summer/northern winter using the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. These fluxes are selectively sensitive to the vertical and lateral spatial distributions of H and CO2 in the uppermost meter of the martian surface. Poleward of ±60° latitude is terrain rich in hydrogen, probably H2O ice buried beneath tens of centimeter-thick hydrogen-poor soil. The central portion of the north polar cap… 

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TLDR
After 55 days of mapping by the High Energy Neutron Detector onboard Mars Odyssey, deficits of high-energy neutrons in the southern highlands and northern lowlands of Mars indicate that hydrogen is concentrated in the subsurface.

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[1] Neutron spectroscopy data acquired by Mars Odyssey are analyzed to determine the abundance and depth of near-surface water ice as a function of latitude in the southern hemisphere as well as the

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The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer on the Mars Odyssey has identified two regions near the poles that are enriched in hydrogen, and it is suggested that the host of the hydrogen in the subsurface layer is ice, which constitutes 35 ± 15% of the layer by weight.

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