Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

  title={Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015},
  author={Haidong Wang and Mohsen Naghavi and Christine Allen and Ryan M Barber and Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta and Austin Carter and Daniel C. Casey and F J Charlson and Andrew Chen and Matthew M. Coates and Megan S Coggeshall and Lalit Dandona and Daniel J Dicker and Holly E. Erskine and Alize J. Ferrari and Christina Fitzmaurice and Kyle Foreman and Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar and Maya S. Fraser and Nancy Fullman and Peter W. Gething and E. Matilda Goldberg and Nicholas Graetz and Juanita Haagsma and Simon I. Hay and Chantal Huynh and Catherine O. Johnson and Nicholas J. Kassebaum and Yohannes Kinfu and Xie Rachel Kulikoff and Michael Kutz and Hmwe H Kyu and Heidi J. Larson and Janni Leung and Xiaofeng Liang and Stephen S. Lim and Margaret Lind and Rafael Lozano and Neal Marquez and George A. Mensah and Joe Mikesell and Ali H. Mokdad and M. S. Daniel Mooney and Grant Nguyen and Elaine Okanyene Nsoesie and David M Pigott and Christine Pinho and Gregory A. Roth and Joshua A Salomon and Logan Sandar and Naris Silpakit and Amber Sligar and Reed J. D. Sorensen and Jeffrey D. Stanaway and Caitlyn Steiner and Stephanie Teeple and Bernadette A Thomas and Christopher Troeger and Amelia VanderZanden and Stein Emil Vollset and Valentine Wanga and Harvey Whiteford and Timothy M Wolock and Leo Zoeckler and Kalkidan Hassen Abate and Cristiana Abbafati and Kaja M. Abbas and Foad Abd-Allah and Semaw Ferede Abera and Daisy Maria Xavier de Abreu and Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad and Gebre Yitayih Abyu and Tom Achoki and Ademola Lukman Adelekan and Zanfina Ademi and Ars{\`e}ne Kouablan Adou and Jos{\'e} Carmelo Adsuar and Kossivi Agb{\'e}l{\'e}nko Afanvi and Ashkan Afshin and Emilie Elisabet Agardh and Arnav Agarwal and Anurag Agrawal and Aliasghar A Kiadaliri and Oluremi N. Ajala and Ali S. Akanda and Rufus O Akinyemi and Tomi F Akinyemiju and Nadia Akseer and Faris Hasan Al Lami and Samer J. Alabed and Ziyad Al-Aly and Khurshid Alam and Noore K M Alam and Deena Alasfoor and Saleh Fahed S Aldhahri and Robert W Aldridge and Miguel Angel Alegretti and Alicia Aleman and Zewdie Aderaw Alemu and Lily T Alexander and Samia Alhabib and Raghib Ali and Ala'a Alkerwi and François Alla and Peter Allebeck and Rajaa Mohammad Salem Al-Raddadi and Ubai Alsharif and Khalid A. Altirkawi and Elena Alvarez Martin and Nelson Rafael Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and Azmeraw T Amare and Adeladza Kofi Amegah and Emmanuel Adoyi Ameh and Heresh Amini and Walid Hakimiand Mahmoud Ammar and Stephen Marc Amrock and Hjalte Holm Andersen and Benjamin O Anderson and Gregory M Anderson and Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Atsede Fantahun Aregay and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic and Al Artaman and Hamid Asayesh and Rana Jawad Asghar and Suleman Atique and Euripide Frinel G. Arthur Avokpaho and Ashish Awasthi and Peter Azzopardi and Umar Qadir Bacha and Alaa Badawi and Mar{\'i}a Cecilia Bahit and K. S. Balakrishnan and Amitava Banerjee and Aleksandra Bara{\'c} and Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo and Till B{\"a}rnighausen and Lars Barreg{\aa}rd and Lope H. Barrero and Arindam Basu and Sanjay Basu and Yibeltal Tebekaw Bayou and Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Ettore Beghi and Haileeyesus Adamu Belay and Brent Bell and Michelle L. Bell and Aminu K. Bello and Derrick A Bennett and Isabela Judith Martins Bense{\~n}or and Adugnaw Berhane and Eduardo Parrilla Bernab{\'e} and Balem Demtsu Betsu and Addisu Shunu Beyene and Neeraj Bhala and Ashish Bhalla and Sibhatu Biadgilign and Boris Bikbov and Aref A Bin Abdulhak and Brian J Biroscak and Stan H. Biryukov and Espen Bjertness and Jed Daniel Blore and Christopher D. Blosser and Megan A. Bohensky and Rohan Borschmann and Dipan Bose and Rupert R A Bourne and Michael Brainin and Carol Brayne and Alexandra Bra{\vz}inov{\'a} and Nicholas J. K. Breitborde and H. Brenner and Jerry D. Brewer and Alexandria Brown and Jonathan Brown and Traolach S. Brugha and Geoffrey Colin Buckle and Zahid Ahmad Butt and Bianca Calabria and Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato and Julio C{\'e}sar Campuzano and Jonathan Carapetis and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and D. E. O. S. Carpenter and Juan Jes{\'u}s Carrero and Carlos Andr{\'e}s Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and Jacqueline Castillo Rivas and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Fiorella Cavalleri and Kelly Cercy and Jorge Cerd{\'a} and Wan-qing Chen and Adrienne Chew and Pei-Chia Chiang and Mirriam Chibalabala and Chioma Ezinne Chibueze and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa and Jee-Young Jasmine Choi and Rajiv Chowdhury and Hanne Christensen and Devasahayam J Christopher and Liliana G. Ciobanu and Massimo Cirillo and Aaron J. Cohen and Valentina Colistro and M. Pilar Alberola Colomar and Samantha M. Colquhoun and Cyrus Cooper and Leslie Trumbull Cooper and Monica Cortinovis and Benjamin C. Cowie and John A Crump and James Damsere-Derry and Hadi Danawi and Rakhi Dandona and Farah Daoud and Sarah C. Darby and Paul Ivor Dargan and Jos{\'e} das Neves and Gail Davey and Adrian C J Davis and Dragos V. Davitoiu and Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro and Pieter C De Jager and Diego De Leo and Louisa Degenhardt and Robert P. Dellavalle and Kebede Deribe and Amare Deribew and Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne and Preet Kaur Dhillon and C{\`e}sar D{\'i}az-Torn{\'e} and Eric L. Ding and Kadine Priscila Bender dos Santos and Edem Dossou and Tim Driscoll and Leilei Duan and Manisha Dubey and Bruce Bartholow Duncan and Richard G. Ellenbogen and Christian Lycke Ellingsen and Iqbal Elyazar and Aman Yesuf Endries and Sergey Petrovich Ermakov and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Kara Estep and Imad D. A. Faghmous and Saman Fahimi and Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon and Talha Farid and Carla Farinha and Andr{\'e} de Mattos Faro and Maryam S. Farvid and Farshad Farzadfar and Valery L. Feigin and Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad and Jefferson Fernandes and Jo{\~a}o C{\^a}ndido Fernandes and Florian Fischer and Joseph Robert Anderson Fitchett and Abraham D. Flaxman and Nataliya Foigt and Francis Gerry R. Fowkes and Elisabeth Barboza França and Richard C Franklin and Joseph Friedman and Joseph J. Frostad and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Neal David Futran and Seana Gall and Ketevan Gambashidze and Amiran Gamkrelidze and Parthasarathi Ganguly and Fortun{\'e} Gb{\`e}toho Gankp{\'e} and Teshome Gebre and Tsegaye Tsewelde Gebrehiwot and Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin and Alemseged Aregay Gebru and Johanna M Geleijnse and Bradford D. Gessner and Aloke Gopal Ghoshal and Katherine B. Gibney and Richard F Gillum and Stuart J Gilmour and Ababi Zergaw Giref and Maurice Giroud and Melkamu Dedefo Gishu and Giorgia Giussani and Elizabeth L Glaser and William W. Godwin and H{\'e}ctor G{\'o}mez-Dant{\'e}s and Philimon Nyakauru Gona and Amador Goodridge and Sameer Vali Gopalani and Richard Andre Gosselin and Carolyn Gotay and Atsushi Goto and Hebe N. Gouda and Felix Greaves and Harish Chander Gugnani and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and V Gupta and Reyna Alma Guti{\'e}rrez and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Demewoz Haile and Alemayehu Hailu and Gessessew Bugssa Hailu and Yara A. Halasa and Randah Ribhi Hamadeh and Samer Hamidi and Jamie R Hancock and Alexis J. Handal and Graeme J. Hankey and Yuantao Hao and Hilda L. Harb and S Harikrishnan and Josep Maria Haro and Rasmus Havmoeller and Susan R. Heckbert and Ileana Beatriz Heredia-Pi and P Heydarpour and Henk B. M. Hilderink and Hans W Hoek and Robert S Hogg and Masako Horino and Nobuyuki Horita and Howard Dean Hosgood and Peter J Hotez and Damian G Hoy and Mohamed Hsairi and Aung Soe Htet and Maung Maung Than Htike and Guoqing Hu and Cheng Huang and Hsiang Huang and Laetitia Huiart and Abdullatif S. Husseini and Inge Huybrechts and Grace Huynh and Kim Moesgaard Iburg and Kaire Innos and Manami Inoue and Veena Iyer and Troy Jacobs and Kathryn H Jacobsen and Nader Jahanmehr and Mihajlo B Jakovljevic and Peter James and Mehdi Javanbakht and Sudha Jayaraman and Achala Jayatilleke and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Paul N Jensen and Vivekanand Jha and Guohong Jiang and Ying Jiang and Tariku Jibat and A{\'i}da Jim{\'e}nez-Corona and Jost Bruno Jonas and Tushar Kant Joshi and Z. Kabir and Ritul Kamal and Haidong Kan and Surya Kant and Andr{\'e} Karch and Corine Kakizi Karema and C Karimkhani and Dimitris Karletsos and G. K. Karthikeyan and Amir Kasaeian and Marzieh Katibeh and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Jeanne Françoise Kayibanda and Peter Njenga Keiyoro and Laura Kemmer and Andrew Haddon Kemp and Andre Pascal Kengne and Andre Keren and Maia Kereselidze and Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran and Yousef S Khader and Ibrahim Abdel-Messih Khalil and Abdur Rahman Khan and Ejaz Ahmad Khan and Young Ho Khang and Sahil Khera and Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer Khoja and Christian Kieling and Daniel Kim and Yun Jin Kim and Brett M. Kissela and Niranjan Kissoon and Luke D. Knibbs and Ann Kristin Knudsen and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Dhaval Kolte and Jacek A. Kopec and Soewarta Kosen and Parvaiz A Koul and Ai Koyanagi and Norun Hjertager Krog and Barth{\'e}lemy Kuate Defo and Burcu Kucuk Bicer and Andreas Adutwum Kudom and Ernst J Kuipers and V. Sheetal Kulkarni and G. Suvarna Kumar and Gene F Kwan and Aparna Lal and Dharmesh Kumar Lal and Ratilal Lalloo and Tea Lallukka and Hilton Yu Lam and Jennifer O Lam and Sin{\'e}ad M. Langan and Van Charles Lansingh and A. Larsson and Dennis Odai Laryea and Asma Abdul Abdul Latif and Alicia Elena Beatriz Lawrynowicz and James Leigh and Miriam Levi and Yongmei Li and M Patrice Lindsay and Steven E. Lipshultz and Patrick Yantyng Liu and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and Loon-Tzian Lo and Giancarlo Logroscino and Paulo Andrade Lotufo and Robyn M Lucas and Raimundas Lunevi{\vc}ius and Ronan A. Lyons and Stefan Ma and Vasco Manuel Pedro Machado and Mark T Mackay and Jennifer H MacLachlan and Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek and Mohammed Magdy and Abd El Razek and Marek Majdan and Azeem Majeed and Reza Malekzadeh and Wondimu Ayele Ayele Manamo and John Mandisarisa and S. Chandra Kumar Mangalam and Chabila C. Mapoma and Wagner Marcenes and David J Margolis and Gerard Robert Martin and Jos{\'e} Mart{\'i}nez-Raga and Melvin Barrientos Marzan and Felix Masiye and Amanda Mason-Jones and Jo{\~a}o Massano and Richard G Matzopoulos and Bongani M. Mayosi and S T McGarvey and J J Mcgrath and Martin McKee and Brian J. McMahon and Peter A. Meaney and Alem Mehari and Man Mohan Mehndiratta and Fabiola Mej{\'i}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and Alemayehu B. Mekonnen and Yohannes Adama Melaku and Peter T N Memiah and Ziad Ahmed Memish and W. P. Mendoza and Atte Meretoja and Tuomo J. Meretoja and Francis Mhimbira and Renata Micha and Anoushka I. Millear and Ted R Miller and Mojde Mirarefin and Awoke Misganaw and Charles N. Mock and Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad and Alireza Mohammadi and Shafiu Mohammed and Viswanathan Mohan and Glen Liddell D Mola and Lorenzo Monasta and Julio Cesar Monta{\~n}ez Hernandez and Pablo Montero and Marcella Montico and Thomas J. Montine and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Lidia Morawska},
  booktitle={The Lancet},
BACKGROUND Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. METHODS We… CONTINUE READING
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