Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

@article{Wang2016GlobalRA,
  title={Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015},
  author={H. Wang and M. Naghavi and Christine A. Allen and Ryan M. Barber and Z. Bhutta and Austin Carter and Daniel C. Casey and F. Charlson and A. Chen and M. Coates and Megan S Coggeshall and L. Dandona and D. Dicker and H. Erskine and A. Ferrari and C. Fitzmaurice and Kyle Foreman and M. Forouzanfar and Maya S Fraser and N. Fullman and P. Gething and Ellen M Goldberg and Nicholas Graetz and J. Haagsma and S. Hay and Chantal K Huynh and C. Johnson and N. Kassebaum and Y. Kinfu and X. Kulikoff and Michael Kutz and H. Kyu and H. Larson and J. Leung and Xiaofeng Liang and S. Lim and Margaret L Lind and R. Lozano and N. Marquez and G. Mensah and Joseph Mikesell and A. Mokdad and M. Mooney and Grant Nguyen and E. Nsoesie and D. Pigott and Christine Pinho and Gregory A. Roth and J. Salomon and Logan Sandar and Naris Silpakit and Amber Sligar and Reed J. D. Sorensen and J. Stanaway and C. Steiner and Stephanie Teeple and Bernadette A. Thomas and C. Troeger and Amelia VanderZanden and S. Vollset and Valentine Wanga and H. Whiteford and Timothy M. Wolock and Leo Zoeckler and K. H. Abate and C. Abbafati and K. Abbas and F. Abd-Allah and S. Abera and D. Abreu and L. Abu-Raddad and G. Abyu and T. Achoki and A. Adelekan and Z. Ademi and A. K. Adou and J. C. Adsuar and K. A. Afanvi and A. Afshin and E. Agardh and A. Agarwal and A. Agrawal and A. Kiadaliri and O. Ajala and A. Akanda and R. Akinyemi and Tomi F Akinyemiju and N. Akseer and F. Lami and S. Alabed and Z. Al-Aly and Khurshid Alam and Noore K M Alam and D. Alasfoor and S. Aldhahri and R. Aldridge and M. Alegretti and A. Aleman and Zewdie Aderaw Alemu and Lily T Alexander and Samia Alhabib and R. Ali and A. Alkerwi and F. Alla and P. Allebeck and R. Al-Raddadi and U. Alsharif and K. Altirkawi and E. A. Martin and N. Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and A. Amare and A. Amegah and E. Ameh and H. Amini and W. Ammar and S. Amrock and H. H. Andersen and B. Anderson and G. M. Anderson and C. A. Antonio and A. Aregay and J. {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and V. A. Arsenijevic and A. Artaman and H. Asayesh and R. Asghar and S. Atique and Euripide Avokpaho and A. Awasthi and P. Azzopardi and U. Bacha and A. Badawi and M. Bahit and K. Balakrishnan and A. Banerjee and A. Barac and S. Barker-Collo and T. B{\"a}rnighausen and L. Barreg{\aa}rd and L. Barrero and A. Basu and Sanjay Basu and Y. Bayou and S. Bazargan-Hejazi and J. Beardsley and N. Bedi and E. Beghi and Haileeyesus Adamu Belay and Brent Bell and M. Bell and A. Bello and D. Bennett and I. Bense{\~n}or and A. Berhane and E. Bernab{\'e} and B. Betsu and A. Beyene and N. Bhala and A. Bhalla and S. Biadgilign and B. Bikbov and A. Abdulhak and B. Biroscak and S. Biryukov and E. Bjertness and J. Blore and C. Blosser and M. Bohensky and R. Borschmann and D. Bose and R. Bourne and M. Brainin and C. Brayne and A. Brazinova and N. Breitborde and H. Brenner and J. Brewer and Alexandria Brown and J. Brown and T. Brugha and G. Buckle and Z. Butt and B. Calabria and I. Campos-Nonato and J. Campuzano and J. Carapetis and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and D. Carpenter and J. Carrero and C. Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and Jacqueline Castillo Rivas and F. Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and F. Cavalleri and Kelly M Cercy and J. Cerd{\'a} and W. Chen and A. Chew and P. Chiang and Mirriam Chibalabala and C. Chibueze and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and V. Chisumpa and J. Choi and R. Chowdhury and Hanne Christensen and D. Christopher and L. Ciobanu and M. Cirillo and A. Cohen and V. Colistro and M. Colomar and Samantha M. Colquhoun and C. Cooper and L. T. Cooper and M. Cortinovis and B. Cowie and J. Crump and James Damsere-Derry and H. Danawi and R. Dandona and F. Daoud and S. Darby and P. Dargan and J. das Neves and G. Davey and A. Davis and D. Daviţoiu and E. F. de Castro and P. de Jager and D. Leo and L. Degenhardt and R. Dellavalle and K. Deribe and A. Deribew and S. Dharmaratne and P. Dhillon and C. D{\'i}az-Torn{\'e} and E. Ding and Kadine Priscila Bender dos Santos and E. Dossou and T. Driscoll and L. Duan and M. Dubey and B. Duncan and R. Ellenbogen and C. Ellingsen and I. Elyazar and A. Endries and S. Ermakov and B. Eshrati and A. Esteghamati and Kara Estep and I. Faghmous and S. Fahimi and E. J. Faraon and T. Farid and C. Farinha and A. Faro and Maryam S. Farvid and F. Farzadfar and V. Feigin and S. Fereshtehnejad and J. Fernandes and F. Fischer and J. Fitchett and A. Flaxman and N. Foigt and F. Fowkes and E. França and R. Franklin and Joseph Friedman and J. Frostad and Thomas F{\"u}rst and N. Futran and S. Gall and K. Gambashidze and A. Gamkrelidze and P. Ganguly and F. Gankp{\'e} and T. Gebre and T. Gebrehiwot and A. Gebremedhin and A. Gebru and J. Geleijnse and B. Gessner and A. Ghoshal and K. Gibney and R. Gillum and S. Gilmour and A. Z. Giref and M. Giroud and Melkamu Dedefo Gishu and G. Giussani and E. Glaser and W. Godwin and H. G{\'o}mez-Dant{\'e}s and P. Gona and A. Goodridge and S. Gopalani and R. Gosselin and C. Gotay and A. Goto and H. Gouda and F. Greaves and H. Gugnani and R. Gupta and V. Gupta and R. A. Guti{\'e}rrez and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and D. Haile and A. Hailu and G. B. Hailu and Y. Halasa and R. Hamadeh and S. Hamidi and Jamie Hancock and A. Handal and G. Hankey and Yuantao Hao and H. Harb and S. Harikrishnan and J. Haro and Rasmus Havmoeller and S. Heckbert and I. Heredia-Pi and P. Heydarpour and H. Hilderink and H. Hoek and R. Hogg and M. Horino and N. Horita and H. Hosgood and P. Hotez and D. Hoy and M. Hsairi and Aung Soe Htet and Maung Maung Than Htike and G. Hu and C. Huang and H. Huang and L. Huiart and A. Husseini and I. Huybrechts and G. Huynh and K. Iburg and K. Innos and M. Inoue and V. Iyer and T. Jacobs and K. Jacobsen and N. Jahanmehr and M. Jakovljevic and P. James and M. Javanbakht and S. Jayaraman and A. Jayatilleke and P. Jeemon and Paul N Jensen and V. Jha and G. Jiang and Y. Jiang and T. Jibat and A. Jim{\'e}nez‐Corona and J. Jonas and T. Joshi and Z. Kabir and R. Kamal and H. Kan and S. Kant and A. Karch and C. Karema and C. Karimkhani and Dimitris Karletsos and G. Karthikeyan and A. Kasaeian and M. Katibeh and Anil Kaul and N. Kawakami and J. Kayibanda and P. Keiyoro and L. Kemmer and A. Kemp and A. Kengne and A. Keren and M. Kereselidze and C. Kesavachandran and Y. Khader and I. Khalil and A. R. Khan and E. Khan and Y. Khang and Sahil Khera and T. Khoja and C. Kieling and D. Kim and Y. Kim and B. Kissela and N. Kissoon and L. Knibbs and A. Knudsen and Y. Kokubo and D. Kolte and J. Kopec and S. Kosen and P. Koul and A. Koyanagi and N. H. Krog and B. K. Defo and B. K. Bicer and A. Kudom and E. Kuipers and Veena S. Kulkarni and G. A. Kumar and G. Kwan and A. Lal and D. Lal and R. Lalloo and T. Lallukka and H. Lam and J. Lam and S. Langan and V. Lansingh and A. Larsson and D. Laryea and A. Latif and A. Lawrynowicz and J. Leigh and M. Levi and Y. Li and M. Lindsay and S. Lipshultz and P. Liu and Shiwei Liu and Y. Liu and Loon-Tzian Lo and G. Logroscino and P. Lotufo and R. Lucas and R. Lunevicius and R. Lyons and S. Ma and V. Machado and M. Mackay and J. MacLachlan and H. A. E. Razek and Mohammed Magdy and A. Razek and M. Majdan and A. Majeed and R. Malekzadeh and Wondimu Ayele Ayele Manamo and John Mandisarisa and S. Mangalam and C. C. Mapoma and W. Marcenes and D. Margolis and G. Martin and J. Martinez-Raga and M. Marzan and F. Masiye and A. Mason-Jones and J. Massano and R. Matzopoulos and B. Mayosi and S. Mcgarvey and J. McGrath and M. Mckee and B. McMahon and P. Meaney and A. Mehari and M. Mehndiratta and Fabiola Mej{\'i}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and A. Mekonnen and Y. Melaku and Peter Memiah and Z. Memish and W. Mendoza and A. Meretoja and T. Meretoja and F. Mhimbira and R. Micha and Anoushka I Millear and T. Miller and M. Mirarefin and A. Misganaw and C. Mock and K. A. Mohammad and A. Mohammadi and Shafiu Mohammed and V. Mohan and G. Mola and L. Monasta and J. Hernandez and Pablo Montero and M. Montico and T. Montine and M. Moradi-Lakeh and L. Morawska and K. Morgan and R. Mori and D. Mozaffarian and U. Mueller and G. Murthy and S. Murthy and K. I. Musa and J. Nachega and G. Nagel and K. Naidoo and N. Naik and L. Naldi and V. Nangia and D. Nash and C. Nejjari and S. Neupane and C. Newton and J. Newton and Marie Ng and F. Ngalesoni and Jean de Dieu Ngirabega and Q. Nguyen and M. Nisar and P. M. N. Pete and Marika Nomura and O. Norheim and P. Norman and B. Norrving and L. Nyakarahuka and F. Ogbo and T. Ohkubo and F. Ojelabi and P. R. Olivares and B. Olusanya and J. Olusanya and John Nelson Opio and E. Oren and Alberto Ortiz and Majdi Osman and E. Ota and R. Ozdemir and Mahesh Pa and A. Pain and J. Pandian and P. Pant and C. Papachristou and E. Park and Jaehyun Park and C. Parry and M. Parsaeian and A. P. Caicedo and S. Patten and G. Patton and V. Paul and N. Pearce and Jo{\~a}o M Pedro and Ljiljana Pejin Stoki{\'c} and David M Pereira and N. Perico and K. Pesudovs and M. Petzold and M. Phillips and F. Piel and J. Pillay and D. Plass and J. Platts-Mills and S. Polinder and C. Pope and S. Popova and R. Poulton and F. Pourmalek and D. Prabhakaran and M. Qorbani and J. Quame-Amaglo and D. A. Quistberg and Anwar Rafay and K. Rahimi and V. Rahimi-Movaghar and M. Rahman and S. Rahman and R. Rai and Z. Rajavi and S. Raj{\vs}i{\'c} and Murugesan Raju and I. Rakovac and S. Rana and C. Ranabhat and T. Rangaswamy and P. Rao and S. Rao and A. Refaat and J. Rehm and M. Reitsma and G. Remuzzi and S. Resnikoff and A. Ribeiro and S. Ricci and M. Blancas and B. Roberts and A. Roca and D. Rojas-Rueda and L. Ronfani and G. Roshandel and D. Rothenbacher and Ambuj Roy and Nawal K Roy and G. Ruhago and R. Sagar and Sukanta Saha and R. Sahathevan and M. M. Saleh and J. Sanabria and M. S{\'a}nchez-Ni{\~n}o and L. S{\`a}nchez-Riera and I. Santos and R. Sarmiento-Su{\'a}rez and B. Sartorius and Maheswar Satpathy and M. Savic and M. Sawhney and M. Schaub and M. Schmidt and I. Schneider and B. Sch{\"o}ttker and A. Schutte and D. Schwebel and S. Seedat and S. Sepanlou and E. Serv{\'a}n-Mori and K. Shackelford and G. Shaddick and A. Shaheen and S. Shahraz and M. A. Shaikh and M. Shakhnazarova and Rajesh Sharma and Jun She and S. Sheikhbahaei and J. Shen and Ziyan Shen and D. Shepard and K. Sheth and B. P. Shetty and Peilin Shi and K. Shibuya and Min-Jeong Shin and R. Shiri and I. Shiue and Mark G. Shrime and I. Sigfusdottir and D. Silberberg and D. A. S. Silva and D. Silveira and J. Silverberg and E. Simard and Ashutosh Kumar Singh and G. Singh and J. Singh and O. Singh and P. K. Singh and V. Singh and S. Soneji and K. S{\o}reide and J. Soriano and L. Sposato and C. Sreeramareddy and V. Stathopoulou and Dan J Stein and M. Stein and S. Stranges and Konstantinos Stroumpoulis and B. Sunguya and Patrick J Sur and S. Swaminathan and Bryan L. Sykes and C. Szoeke and R. Tabar{\'e}s-Seisdedos and Karen M. Tabb and Ken Takahashi and J. Takala and Roberto Tchio Talongwa and N. Tandon and M. Tavakkoli and B. Taye and H. Taylor and B. Ao and B. A. Tedla and Worku Tefera and M. Have and A. Terkawi and F. Tesfay and G. Tessema and A. Thomson and A. Thorne-Lyman and A. Thrift and G. Thurston and Taavi Tillmann and D. Tirschwell and M. Tonelli and R. Topor-Madry and F. Topouzis and J. Towbin and J. Traebert and B. Tran and T. Truelsen and Ulises Trujillo and A. K. Tura and E. Tuzcu and Uche S. Uchendu and K. Ukwaja and E. Undurraga and O. Uthman and R. V. Dingenen and A. van Donkelaar and T. Vasankari and A. M. Vasconcelos and N. Venketasubramanian and Ramesh Vidavalur and L. Vijayakumar and S. Villalpando and F. Violante and V. Vlassov and J. Wagner and G. Wagner and M. Wallin and Lin-hong Wang and D. Watkins and S. Weichenthal and E. Weiderpass and R. Weintraub and A. Werdecker and R. Westerman and R. White and T. Wijeratne and J. Wilkinson and H. Williams and C. Wiysonge and S. M. Woldeyohannes and C. Wolfe and S. Won and John Q. Wong and A. Woolf and D. Xavier and Q. Xiao and G. Xu and Bereket Yakob and A. Z. Yalew and L. Yan and Y. Yano and M. Yaseri and P. Ye and Henock G. Yebyo and P. Yip and B. Yirsaw and N. Yonemoto and G. Yonga and M. Younis and S. Yu and Z. Zaidi and M. Zaki and F. Zannad and D. Zavala and H. Zeeb and B. Zeleke and H. Zhang and S. Zodpey and D. Zonies and L. Zuhlke and T. Vos and A. D. Lopez and C. Murray},
  journal={Lancet (London, England)},
  year={2016},
  volume={388},
  pages={1459 - 1544}
}
Summary Background Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures. Methods… Expand
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