Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

@article{Murray2015GlobalRA,
  title={Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition},
  author={C. Murray and Ryan M. Barber and Kyle Foreman and A. Ozgoren and F. Abd-allah and S. Abera and V. Aboyans and J. Abraham and I. Abubakar and L. Abu-Raddad and N. Abu-Rmeileh and T. Achoki and I. Ackerman and Z. Ademi and A. K. Adou and J. Adsuar and Ashkan Afshin and E. Agardh and S. S. Alam and D. Alasfoor and M. Albittar and M. Alegretti and Z. A. Alemu and R. Alfonso-Cristancho and Samia Alhabib and R. Ali and F. Alla and P. Allebeck and Mohammad A. Almazroa and U. Alsharif and E. {\'A}lvarez and N. Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and A. Amare and E. Ameh and H. Amini and W. Ammar and H. R. Anderson and B. Anderson and C. A. Antonio and P. Anwari and J. {\'A}rnl{\"o}v and V. Arsenijevic and A. Artaman and R. Asghar and R. Assadi and Lydia S. Atkins and M. Avila and B. Awuah and Victoria F Bachman and A. Badawi and M. Bahit and K. Balakrishnan and A. Banerjee and S. Barker-Collo and S. Barquera and L. Barregard and L. Barrero and A. Basu and S. Basu and M. Basulaiman and J. Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and E. Beghi and T. Bekele and M. Bell and C. Benjet and D. Bennett and I. Bense{\~n}or and H. Benzian and E. Bernab{\'e} and A. Bertozzi-Villa and T. Beyene and N. Bhala and A. Bhalla and Z. Bhutta and Kelly Bienhoff and B. Bikbov and S. Biryukov and J. Blore and C. Blosser and F. Blyth and M. Bohensky and I. Bolliger and B. Başara and N. Bornstein and D. Bose and S. Boufous and R. Bourne and L. Boyers and M. Brainin and C. Brayne and A. Brazinova and N. Breitborde and H. Brenner and A. Briggs and Peter M Brooks and Jonathan C. Brown and T. Brugha and R. Buchbinder and G. Buckle and C. Budke and Anne Bulchis and A. Bulloch and I. Campos-Nonato and H. Carabin and J. Carapetis and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and D. Carpenter and V. Caso and C. Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and R. Castro and F. Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and F. Cavalleri and Alanur Çavlin and V. Chadha and Jung-Chen Chang and F. Charlson and Honglei Chen and Wanqing Chen and P. Chiang and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and R. Chowdhury and H. Christensen and C. Christophi and M. Cirillo and M. Coates and L. Coffeng and Megan S Coggeshall and V. Colistro and Samantha M. Colquhoun and G. Cooke and C. Cooper and Leslie Cooper and Luis M. Coppola and M. Cortinovis and M. Criqui and J. Crump and L. Cuevas-Nasu and H. Danawi and L. Dandona and R. Dandona and E. Dansereau and P. Dargan and G. Davey and A. Davis and D. Davițoiu and A. Dayama and D. Leo and L. Degenhardt and B. Pozo-Cruz and R. Dellavalle and K. Deribe and S. Derrett and D. D. Jarlais and Muluken Dessalegn and S. Dharmaratne and M. Dherani and C. D{\'i}az-Torn{\'e} and D. Dicker and E. Ding and K. Dokova and E. Dorsey and T. Driscoll and L. Duan and H. Duber and B. Ebel and K. Edmond and Yousef M Elshrek and M. Endres and S. P. Ermakov and H. Erskine and B. Eshrati and A. Esteghamati and Kara Estep and E. J. Faraon and F. Farzadfar and Derek F J Fay and V. Feigin and D. Felson and S. Fereshtehnejad and J. Fernandes and A. Ferrari and C. Fitzmaurice and A. Flaxman and T. Fleming and N. Foigt and M. Forouzanfar and F. Fowkes and U. F. Paleo and R. Franklin and Thomas F{\"u}rst and B. Gabbe and L. Gaffikin and F. Gankp{\'e} and J. Geleijnse and B. Gessner and P. Gething and K. Gibney and M. Giroud and G. Giussani and H. G. Dant{\'e}s and Philimon N. Gona and D. Gonz{\'a}lez-Medina and R. Gosselin and C. Gotay and A. Goto and H. Gouda and Nicholas Graetz and H. Gugnani and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and R. A. Guti{\'e}rrez and J. Haagsma and N. Hafezi-Nejad and H. Hagan and Y. Halasa and R. Hamadeh and Hannah Hamavid and M. Hammami and Jamie Hancock and G. Hankey and Gillian M Hansen and Y. Hao and H. Harb and J. Haro and Rasmus J Havmoeller and S. Hay and R. Hay and I. Heredia-Pi and Kyle Heuton and P. Heydarpour and H. Higashi and M. H{\'i}jar and H. Hoek and H. Hoffman and H. Hosgood and Mazeda Hossain and P. Hotez and D. Hoy and M. Hsairi and G. Hu and Cheng Huang and John J Emmanuel Huang and A. Husseini and Chantal K Huynh and Marissa L Iannarone and K. Iburg and K. Innos and M. Inoue and F. Islami and K. Jacobsen and D. Jarvis and S. Jassal and S. Jee and P. Jeemon and Paul N Jensen and V. Jha and G. Jiang and Ying Jiang and J. Jonas and K. Juel and H. Kan and A. Karch and C. Karema and C. Karimkhani and G. Karthikeyan and N. Kassebaum and Anil Kaul and N. Kawakami and Konstantin Kazanjan and A. Kemp and A. Kengne and A. Keren and Y. Khader and S. Khalifa and E. Khan and G. Khan and Y. Khang and C. Kieling and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yunjin Kim and Y. Kinfu and J. Kinge and M. Kivipelto and L. Knibbs and A. Knudsen and Y. Kokubo and S. Kosen and S. Krishnaswami and B. K. Defo and B. K. Bicer and E. Kuipers and Chanda Kulkarni and Veena S. Kulkarni and G. A. Kumar and Hmwe H. Kyu and T. Lai and R. Lalloo and T. Lallukka and H. Lam and Q. Lan and V. Lansingh and A. Larsson and A. Lawrynowicz and J. Leasher and J. Leigh and R. Leung and Carly E Levitz and Bin Li and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Stephen S. Lim and Margaret L Lind and S. Lipshultz and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and B. Lloyd and Katherine T. Lofgren and G. Logroscino and K. Looker and J. Lortet-Tieulent and P. Lotufo and R. Lozano and R. Lucas and R. Lunevicius and R. Lyons and Stefan Ma and Michael F Macintyre and M. Mackay and M. Majdan and R. Malekzadeh and W. Marcenes and D. Margolis and Christopher Margono and M. Marzan and J. Masci and M. T. Mashal and R. Matzopoulos and B. Mayosi and Tasara Mazorodze and Neil W Mcgill and J. McGrath and M. Mckee and Abigail Mclain and P. Meaney and C. Medina and M. Mehndiratta and W. Mekonnen and Y. Melaku and M. Meltzer and Z. Memish and G. Mensah and A. Meretoja and F. Mhimbira and R. Micha and T. Miller and E. Mills and P. Mitchell and C. Mock and N. Ibrahim and K. A. Mohammad and A. Mokdad and G. Mola and L. Monasta and J. C. M. Hernandez and M. Montico and T. Montine and M. Mooney and A. Moore and M. Moradi-Lakeh and A. Moran and R. Mori and J. Moschandreas and W. Moturi and Madeline L Moyer and D. Mozaffarian and W. Msemburi and U. Mueller and Mitsuru Mukaigawara and Erin C Mullany and M. Murdoch and Joseph Murray and Kinnari S Murthy and M. Naghavi and A. Naheed and K. Naidoo and L. Naldi and Devina Nand and V. Nangia and K. Narayan and C. Nejjari and S. Neupane and C. Newton and Marie Ng and F. Ngalesoni and Grant Nguyen and M. Nisar and S. Nolte and O. Norheim and R. Norman and B. Norrving and L. Nyakarahuka and I. Oh and T. Ohkubo and S. L. Ohno and B. Olusanya and John Nelson Opio and Katrina F. Ortblad and Alberto Ortiz and A. Pain and J. Pandian and C. Panelo and C. Papachristou and Eun-Kee Park and Jae-Hyun Park and S. Patten and G. Patton and Vinod K Paul and B. Pavlin and N. Pearce and David M Pereira and R. Perez-Padilla and F. Perez-Ruiz and N. Perico and A. Pervaiz and K. Pesudovs and C. Peterson and M. Petzold and M. Phillips and B. Phillips and D. Phillips and F. Piel and D. Plass and D. Poenaru and S. Polinder and D. Pope and S. Popova and R. Poulton and F. Pourmalek and D. Prabhakaran and N. Prasad and R. Pullan and D. Qato and D. A. Quistberg and Anwar Rafay and K. Rahimi and S. Rahman and M. Raju and S. Rana and H. Razavi and K. Reddy and A. Refaat and G. Remuzzi and S. Resnikoff and A. Ribeiro and Lee Richardson and J. Richardus and D. Roberts and D. Rojas-Rueda and L. Ronfani and Gregory A. Roth and D. Rothenbacher and D. Rothstein and J. Rowley and N. Roy and G. Ruhago and M. Saeedi and S. Saha and M. Sahraian and U. Sampson and J. Sanabria and Logan Sandar and I. Santos and Maheswar Satpathy and M. Sawhney and P. Scarborough and I. Schneider and B. Sch{\"o}ttker and Austin E Schumacher and D. Schwebel and James G. Scott and S. Seedat and S. Sepanlou and Peter T. Serina and E. Serv{\'a}n-Mori and K. Shackelford and A. Shaheen and S. Shahraz and T. Levy and Siyi Shangguan and Jun She and S. Sheikhbahaei and P. Shi and K. Shibuya and Y. Shinohara and R. Shiri and K. Shishani and I. Shiue and M. Shrime and I. Sigfusdottir and D. Silberberg and E. Simard and S. Sindi and Abhishek Singh and J. Singh and L. Singh and V. Skirbekk and E. Slepak and K. Sliwa and S. Soneji and K. S{\o}reide and S. Soshnikov and L. Sposato and C. Sreeramareddy and J. Stanaway and V. Stathopoulou and Dan J Stein and M. Stein and C. Steiner and T. Steiner and A. Stevens and Andrea Stewart and L. Stovner and K. Stroumpoulis and B. Sunguya and S. Swaminathan and M. Swaroop and Bryan L. Sykes and K. Tabb and Ken Takahashi and N. Tandon and D. Tann{\'e} and Marcel Tanner and M. Tavakkoli and H. Taylor and B. Ao and F. Tediosi and A. M. Temesgen and Tara Templin and M. Have and E. Tenkorang and A. Terkawi and B. Thomson and A. Thorne-Lyman and A. Thrift and G. Thurston and Taavi Tillmann and M. Tonelli and F. Topouzis and Hideaki Toyoshima and J. Traebert and B. Tran and M. Trillini and T. Truelsen and M. Tsilimbaris and E. Tuzcu and Uche S Uchendu and K. Ukwaja and E. Undurraga and S. Uzun and W. Brakel and S. V. D. Vijver and C. V. Gool and J. Os and T. Vasankari and N. Venketasubramanian and F. Violante and V. Vlassov and S. Vollset and G. Wagner and J. Wagner and S. Waller and X. Wan and Haidong Wang and Jianli Wang and Linhong Wang and T. S. Warouw and S. Weichenthal and E. Weiderpass and R. Weintraub and W. Wenzhi and A. Werdecker and R. Westerman and H. Whiteford and J. Wilkinson and T. Williams and C. Wolfe and Timothy M. Wolock and A. Woolf and S. Wulf and Brittany R. Wurtz and Gelin Xu and Lijing L. Yan and Y. Yano and P. Ye and G{\"o}kalp K Yent{\"u}r and Paul Yip and N. Yonemoto and Seok-Jun Yoon and M. Younis and Chuanhua Yu and M. Zaki and Yong Zhao and Yingfeng Zheng and D. Zonies and X. Zou and J. Salomon and Alan D. Lopez and T. Vos},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2015},
  volume={386},
  pages={2145-2191}
}
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. [...] Key Method We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and…Expand
Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
TLDR
DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework on which to benchmark geography-specific health performance and SDG progress and supports continued efforts to elevate personal income, improve education, and limit fertility. Expand
Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 333 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
TLDR
At a global level, DALYs and HALE continue to show improvements and the importance of continued health interventions, which has changed in most locations in pace with the gross domestic product per person, education, and family planning. Expand
Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 359 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
TLDR
The patterns and trends of healthy life expectancy (HALE), which quantifies the number of years of life expected to be lived in good health, and the complementary measure of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), a composite measure of disease burden capturing both premature mortality and prevalence and severity of ill health, over the past 28 years are assessed. Expand
National disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 257 diseases and injuries in Ethiopia, 1990–2015: findings from the global burden of disease study 2015
TLDR
Ethiopia has been successful in reducing age-standardized DALYs related to most communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional deficiency diseases in the last 25 years, causing a major ranking shift to types of non-communicable disease. Expand
Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (DALYs) for 315 Diseases and Injuries and Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) in Iran and its Neighboring Countries, 1990-2015: Findings from Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
TLDR
The levels and trends in causes of DALYs, life expectancy, and HALE generally show similarities between the 16 countries, although differences exist; the pattern of change is similar in almost all 16 countries. Expand
Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years (Dalys) for Common Neglected Tropical Diseases in Ethiopia, 1990-2015: Evidence from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.
TLDR
Ethiopia has made a remarkable progress in reducing the DALY rates for most of the NTDs over the last 25 years, and the rapid scale of interventions and broader system strengthening may have a lasting impact on achieving the 2020 goal of elimination of most of N TDs. Expand
Age-standardized mortality, disability-adjusted life-years and healthy life expectancy in different cultural regions of Guangdong, China: a population-based study of 2005–2015
TLDR
The life expectancy and HALE at birth were highest in Canton region in both 2005 and 2015, than in Hoklo and Hakka region, and the findings call for improved public health care via the refinement of policy and effective measures for disease prevention. Expand
Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
TLDR
Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries, and a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index) is created and used to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. Expand
Contribution of specific diseases and injuries to changes in health adjusted life expectancy in 187 countries from 1990 to 2013: retrospective observational study
TLDR
This study pinpoints the priority diseases and injuries for altering the declining health trend in 11 countries, for curbing the epidemic of non-communicable diseases in low and middle income countries, and for promoting compression of morbidity worldwide. Expand
Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
TLDR
The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015, finding several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. Expand
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