Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

@article{Forouzanfar2015GlobalRA,
  title={Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013},
  author={M. Forouzanfar and Lily T Alexander and H. R. Anderson and Victoria F Bachman and S. Biryukov and M. Brauer and R. Burnett and Daniel C. Casey and M. Coates and A. Cohen and Kristen Delwiche and Kara Estep and J. Frostad and K. Astha and Hmwe H. Kyu and M. Moradi-Lakeh and Marie Ng and E. Slepak and Bernadette A. Thomas and J. Wagner and G. M. Aasvang and C. Abbafati and A. Ozgoren and F. Abd-allah and S. Abera and V. Aboyans and Biju Abraham and J. Abraham and I. Abubakar and N. Abu-Rmeileh and Tania C Aburto and T. Achoki and A. Adelekan and Koranteng Adofo and A. K. Adou and J. Adsuar and Ashkan Afshin and E. Agardh and M. Khabouri and F. Lami and S. S. Alam and D. Alasfoor and M. Albittar and M. Alegretti and A. Aleman and Z. A. Alemu and R. Alfonso-Cristancho and Samia Alhabib and R. Ali and Mohammed K. Ali and F. Alla and P. Allebeck and Peter J Allen and U. Alsharif and E. {\'A}lvarez and N. Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and A. Amankwaa and A. Amare and E. Ameh and O. Ameli and H. Amini and W. Ammar and B. Anderson and C. A. Antonio and P. Anwari and S. Cunningham and J. {\'A}rnl{\"o}v and V. Arsenijevic and A. Artaman and R. Asghar and R. Assadi and Lydia S. Atkins and C. Atkinson and M. Avila and B. Awuah and A. Badawi and M. Bahit and Talal Bakfalouni and K. Balakrishnan and Shivanthi Balalla and Ravi Kumar Balu and A. Banerjee and Ryan M. Barber and S. Barker-Collo and S. Barquera and L. Barregard and L. Barrero and T. Barrientos-Guti{\'e}rrez and A. Basto-Abreu and A. Basu and S. Basu and M. Basulaiman and Carolina Batis Ruvalcaba and J. Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and T. Bekele and M. Bell and C. Benjet and D. Bennett and H. Benzian and E. Bernab{\'e} and T. Beyene and N. Bhala and A. Bhalla and Z. Bhutta and B. Bikbov and A. Abdulhak and J. Blore and F. Blyth and M. Bohensky and B. Başara and G. Borges and N. Bornstein and D. Bose and S. Boufous and R. Bourne and M. Brainin and A. Brazinova and N. Breitborde and H. Brenner and A. Briggs and D. Broday and Peter M Brooks and N. Bruce and T. Brugha and B. Brunekreef and R. Buchbinder and L. Bui and G. Bukhman and A. Bulloch and Michael Burch and P. Burney and I. Campos-Nonato and J. Campuzano and A. Cantoral and J. Caravanos and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and E. Cardis and David O Carpenter and V. Caso and C. Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and R. Castro and F. Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and F. Cavalleri and Alanur Çavlin and V. Chadha and Jung-chen Chang and F. Charlson and Honglei Chen and Wanqing Chen and Zhengmin Chen and P. Chiang and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and R. Chowdhury and C. Christophi and Ting-Wu Chuang and S. Chugh and M. Cirillo and Thomas KD Cla{\ss}en and V. Colistro and Mercedes Colomar and Samantha M. Colquhoun and Alejandra G Contreras and C. Cooper and Kimberly Cooperrider and Leslie Cooper and J. Coresh and K. Courville and M. Criqui and L. Cuevas-Nasu and James Damsere-Derry and H. Danawi and L. Dandona and R. Dandona and P. Dargan and A. Davis and D. Davițoiu and A. Dayama and E. Castro and V. D. L. Cruz-G{\'o}ngora and D. Leo and G. Lima and L. Degenhardt and B. Pozo-Cruz and R. Dellavalle and K. Deribe and S. Derrett and D. D. Jarlais and Muluken Dessalegn and G. DeVeber and K. Devries and S. Dharmaratne and M. Dherani and D. Dicker and E. Ding and K. Dokova and E. Dorsey and T. Driscoll and L. Duan and Adnan M. Durrani and B. Ebel and R. Ellenbogen and Yousef M Elshrek and M. Endres and S. Ermakov and H. Erskine and B. Eshrati and A. Esteghamati and S. Fahimi and E. J. Faraon and F. Farzadfar and Derek F J Fay and V. Feigin and A. Feigl and S. Fereshtehnejad and A. Ferrari and C. Ferri and A. Flaxman and T. Fleming and N. Foigt and Kyle Foreman and U. F. Paleo and R. Franklin and B. Gabbe and L. Gaffikin and E. Gakidou and A. Gamkrelidze and F. Gankp{\'e} and R. Gansevoort and Francisco A Garc{\'i}a-Guerra and E. Gasana and J. Geleijnse and B. Gessner and P. Gething and K. Gibney and R. Gillum and I. Ginawi and M. Giroud and G. Giussani and S. Goenka and K. Goginashvili and H. G. Dant{\'e}s and Philimon N. Gona and Teresita Gonz{\'a}lez de Cos{\'i}o and Dinorah Gonz{\'a}lez-Castell and C. Gotay and A. Goto and H. Gouda and R. Guerrant and H. Gugnani and F. Guillemin and D. Gunnell and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and R. A. Guti{\'e}rrez and N. Hafezi-Nejad and H. Hagan and M. Hagstromer and Y. Halasa and R. Hamadeh and M. Hammami and G. Hankey and Y. Hao and H. Harb and T. Haregu and J. Haro and Rasmus J Havmoeller and S. Hay and M. Hedayati and I. Heredia-Pi and Luc{\'i}a Hern{\'a}ndez and Kyle Heuton and P. Heydarpour and M. H{\'i}jar and H. Hoek and H. Hoffman and J. Hornberger and H. Hosgood and D. Hoy and M. Hsairi and G. Hu and Howard Hu and Cheng Huang and John J Emmanuel Huang and B. Hubbell and L. Huiart and A. Husseini and Marissa L Iannarone and K. Iburg and Bulat Idrisov and Nayu Ikeda and K. Innos and M. Inoue and F. Islami and S. Ismayilova and K. Jacobsen and H. Jansen and D. Jarvis and S. Jassal and Alejandra J{\'a}uregui and S. Jayaraman and P. Jeemon and Paul N Jensen and V. Jha and Fan Jiang and G. Jiang and Ying Jiang and J. Jonas and K. Juel and H. Kan and Sidibe S Kany Roseline and Nadim E. Karam and A. Karch and C. Karema and G. Karthikeyan and Anil Kaul and N. Kawakami and D. Kazi and A. Kemp and A. Kengne and A. Keren and Y. Khader and S. Khalifa and E. Khan and Y. Khang and S. Khatibzadeh and I. Khonelidze and C. Kieling and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yunjin Kim and R. Kimokoti and Y. Kinfu and J. Kinge and B. Kissela and M. Kivipelto and L. Knibbs and A. Knudsen and Y. Kokubo and M. R. Kose and S. Kosen and A. Kraemer and Michael A Kravchenko and S. Krishnaswami and H. Kromhout and Tiffany Ku and B. K. Defo and B. K. Bicer and E. Kuipers and Chanda Kulkarni and Veena S. Kulkarni and G. A. Kumar and G. Kwan and T. Lai and A. Balaji and R. Lalloo and T. Lallukka and H. Lam and Q. Lan and V. Lansingh and H. Larson and A. Larsson and D. Laryea and P. Lavados and A. Lawrynowicz and J. Leasher and Jong-Tae Lee and J. Leigh and R. Leung and M. Levi and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Juan Liang and Xiaofeng Liang and Stephen S. Lim and M. Lindsay and S. Lipshultz and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and B. Lloyd and G. Logroscino and S. London and Nancy Lopez and J. Lortet-Tieulent and P. Lotufo and R. Lozano and R. Lunevicius and Jixiang Ma and Stefan Ma and V. Machado and Michael F Macintyre and C. Magis-Rodr{\'i}guez and Abbasi Mahdi and M. Majdan and R. Malekzadeh and S. Mangalam and C. Mapoma and M. Marape and W. Marcenes and D. Margolis and Christopher Margono and G. Marks and Randall V. Martin and M. Marzan and M. T. Mashal and F. Masiye and A. Mason-Jones and K. Matsushita and R. Matzopoulos and B. Mayosi and Tasara Mazorodze and Abigail C. McKay and M. Mckee and Abigail Mclain and P. Meaney and C. Medina and M. Mehndiratta and Fabiola Mej{\'i}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and W. Mekonnen and Y. Melaku and M. Meltzer and Z. Memish and W. Mendoza and G. Mensah and A. Meretoja and F. Mhimbira and R. Micha and T. Miller and E. Mills and A. Misganaw and S. Mishra and N. Ibrahim and K. A. Mohammad and A. Mokdad and G. Mola and L. Monasta and J. C. M. Hernandez and M. Montico and A. Moore and L. Morawska and R. Mori and J. Moschandreas and W. Moturi and D. Mozaffarian and U. Mueller and Mitsuru Mukaigawara and Erin C Mullany and Kinnari S Murthy and M. Naghavi and Z. Nahas and A. Naheed and K. Naidoo and L. Naldi and Devina Nand and V. Nangia and K. Narayan and D. Nash and B. Neal and C. Nejjari and S. Neupane and C. Newton and F. Ngalesoni and J. Ngirabega and Grant Nguyen and Nhung T. T. Nguyen and M. Nieuwenhuijsen and M. Nisar and J. R. Nogueira and J. Nolla and S. Nolte and O. Norheim and R. Norman and B. Norrving and L. Nyakarahuka and I. Oh and T. Ohkubo and B. Olusanya and S. Omer and John Nelson Opio and R. Orozco and Rodolfo S Pagcatipunan and A. Pain and J. Pandian and C. Panelo and C. Papachristou and Eun-Kee Park and C. Parry and A. P. Caicedo and S. Patten and Vinod K Paul and B. Pavlin and N. Pearce and L. Pedraza and A. Pedroza and Ljiljana Pejin Stoki{\'c} and Ayfer Pekericli and David M Pereira and R. Perez-Padilla and F. Perez-Ruiz and N. Perico and S. A. Perry and A. Pervaiz and K. Pesudovs and C. Peterson and M. Petzold and M. Phillips and H. P. Phua and D. Plass and D. Poenaru and G. Polanczyk and S. Polinder and C. Pond and C. Pope and D. Pope and S. Popova and F. Pourmalek and J. Powles and D. Prabhakaran and N. Prasad and D. Qato and A. D. Quezada and D. A. Quistberg and Lionel Racap{\'e} and Anwar Rafay and K. Rahimi and V. Rahimi-Movaghar and S. Rahman and M. Raju and I. Rakovac and S. Rana and M. Rao and H. Razavi and K. Reddy and A. Refaat and J. Rehm and G. Remuzzi and A. Ribeiro and Patricia M. Riccio and Lee Richardson and A. Riederer and Margaret Robinson and A. Roca and Alina Rodriguez and D. Rojas-Rueda and I. Romieu and L. Ronfani and R. Room and N. Roy and G. Ruhago and L. Rushton and Nsanzimana Sabin and R. Sacco and S. Saha and R. Sahathevan and M. Sahraian and J. Salomon and D. Salvo and U. Sampson and J. Sanabria and L. M. S{\'a}nchez and Tania G S{\'a}nchez-Pimienta and L. S{\`a}nchez-Riera and Logan Sandar and I. Santos and A. Sapkota and Maheswar Satpathy and J. Saunders and M. Sawhney and M. Saylan and P. Scarborough and J{\"u}rgen C. Schmidt and I. Schneider and B. Sch{\"o}ttker and D. Schwebel and James G. Scott and S. Seedat and S. Sepanlou and B. Serdar and E. Serv{\'a}n-Mori and G. Shaddick and S. Shahraz and T. Levy and Siyi Shangguan and Jun She and S. Sheikhbahaei and K. Shibuya and H. Shin and Y. Shinohara and R. Shiri and K. Shishani and I. Shiue and I. Sigfusdottir and D. Silberberg and E. Simard and S. Sindi and Abhishek Singh and Gitanjali M Singh and J. Singh and V. Skirbekk and K. Sliwa and M. Soljak and S. Soneji and K. S{\o}reide and S. Soshnikov and L. Sposato and C. Sreeramareddy and N. Stapelberg and V. Stathopoulou and Nadine Steckling and Dan J Stein and M. Stein and Natalie Stephens and H. St{\"o}ckl and K. Straif and K. Stroumpoulis and L. Sturua and B. Sunguya and S. Swaminathan and M. Swaroop and Bryan L. Sykes and K. Tabb and Ken Takahashi and R. T. Talongwa and N. Tandon and D. Tann{\'e} and Marcel Tanner and M. Tavakkoli and B. Ao and C. Teixeira and M. T. Rojo and A. Terkawi and J. Texcalac-Sangrador and S. Thackway and B. Thomson and A. Thorne-Lyman and A. Thrift and G. Thurston and Taavi Tillmann and M. Tobollik and M. Tonelli and F. Topouzis and J. Towbin and H. Toyoshima and J. Traebert and B. Tran and L. Trasande and M. Trillini and Ulises Trujillo and Z. T. Dimbuene and M. Tsilimbaris and E. Tuzcu and Uche S Uchendu and K. Ukwaja and S. Uzun and S. V. D. Vijver and R. V. Dingenen and C. V. Gool and J. Os and Yuri Y Varakin and T. Vasankari and A. M. Vasconcelos and M. Vavilala and L. Veerman and G. Velasquez-Melendez and N. Venketasubramanian and L. Vijayakumar and S. Villalpando and F. Violante and V. Vlassov and S. Vollset and G. Wagner and S. Waller and M. Wallin and X. Wan and Haidong Wang and Jianli Wang and Linhong Wang and Wenzhi Wang and Yanping Wang and T. S. Warouw and C. Watts and S. Weichenthal and E. Weiderpass and R. Weintraub and A. Werdecker and K. Wessells and R. Westerman and H. Whiteford and J. Wilkinson and H. Williams and T. Williams and S. Woldeyohannes and C. Wolfe and J. Q. Wong and A. Woolf and Jonathan L. Wright and Brittany R. Wurtz and Gelin Xu and Lijing L. Yan and Gonghuan Yang and Y. Yano and P. Ye and M. Yenesew and G{\"o}kalp K Yent{\"u}r and Paul Yip and N. Yonemoto and Seok-Jun Yoon and M. Younis and Zourkaleini Younoussi and Chuanhua Yu and M. Zaki and Yong Zhao and Yingfeng Zheng and Maigeng Zhou and Jun Zhu and Shankuan Zhu and X. Zou and J. Zunt and Alan D. Lopez and T. Vos and C. Murray},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2015},
  volume={386},
  pages={2287-2323}
}
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution… Expand
Global burden of stroke and risk factors in 188 countries, during 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
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The results suggest that more than 90% of the stroke burden is attributable to modifiable risk factors, and achieving control of behavioural and metabolic risk factors could avert more than three-quarters of the global stroke burden. Expand
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The past, present, and anticipated burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years from 1990 to 2013 is reported using data on mortality, disability, injuries, and health risk factors. Expand
Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
TLDR
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Estimates of the global, regional, and national morbidity, mortality, and aetiologies of diarrhoea in 195 countries: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
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Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
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Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts
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An update of SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012 is presented. Expand
Global, regional, and national burden of multiple sclerosis 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
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