Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

  title={Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013},
  author={Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar and Lily T Alexander and Hugh Ross Anderson and Victoria F Bachman and Stan Biryukov and Michael Brauer and Richard T. Burnett and Daniel C. Casey and Matthew M Coates and Aaron J. Cohen and Kristen Delwiche and Kara Estep and Joseph Jon Frostad and K C Astha and Hmwe H. Kyu and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Marie Ng and Erica Leigh Slepak and Bernadette A. Thomas and Joseph A Wagner and Gunn Marit Aasvang and Cristiana Abbafati and Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren and Foad Abd-Allah and Semaw Ferede Abera and Victor Aboyans and Biju Abraham and Jerry Puthenpurakal Abraham and Ibrahim Abubakar and Niveen M. E. Abu-Rmeileh and Tania C Aburto and Tom Achoki and Ademola Adelekan and Koranteng Adofo and Ars{\`e}ne Kouablan Adou and Jos{\'e} Carmelo Adsuar and Ashkan Afshin and Emilie E Agardh and Mazin J. Al Khabouri and Faris Lami and Sayed Saidul Alam and Deena Alasfoor and Mohammed I. Albittar and Miguel Angel Alegretti and Alicia Aleman and Zewdie Aderaw Alemu and Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho and Samia M. Alhabib and Raghib Ali and Mohammed K. Ali and François Alla and Peter Allebeck and Peter J Allen and Ubai Alsharif and Elena {\'A}lvarez and Nelson Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and Adansi A. Amankwaa and Azmeraw T. Amare and Emmanuel A. Ameh and Omid Ameli and Heresh Amini and W. Ammar and Benjamin O Anderson and Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Palwasha Anwari and Solveig A. Cunningham and Johan {\'A}rnl{\"o}v and Valentina Arsic Arsenijevic and Al Artaman and Rana Jawad Asghar and Reza Ghaleh Assadi and Lydia S. Atkins and Charles Atkinson and Marco Antonio {\'A}vila and Baffour Awuah and Alaa Badawi and Maria Cecilia Bahit and Talal Bakfalouni and Kalpana Balakrishnan and Shivanthi K. Balalla and Ravi Kumar Balu and Amitava Banerjee and Ryan Barber and Suzanne Barker-Collo and Sim{\'o}n Barquera and Lars Barregard and Lope H. Barrero and Tonatiuh Barrientos-Guti{\'e}rrez and Ana Basto-Abreu and Arindam Basu and Sanjay Basu and Mohammed O Basulaiman and Carolina Batis Ruvalcaba and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Tolesa Bekele and Michelle L. Bell and Corina Benjet and Derrick A Bennett and Habib Benzian and Eduardo Bernab{\'e} and Tariku Jibat Beyene and Neeraj Bhala and Ashish Bhalla and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta and Boris Bikbov and Aref A. Bin. Abdulhak and Jed D. Blore and Fiona M Blyth and Megan A. Bohensky and Berrak Bora Başara and Guilherme Borges and Natan M. Bornstein and Dipan Bose and Soufiane Boufous and Rupert R A Bourne and Michael Brainin and Alexandra Brazinova and Nicholas J. K. Breitborde and Hermann Brenner and Adam D. M. Briggs and David M. Broday and Peter M Brooks and Nigel G. Bruce and Traolach Brugha and Bert Brunekreef and Rachelle Buchbinder and Linh N Bui and Gene Bukhman and Andrew G. M. Bulloch and Michael Burch and Peter G. J. Burney and Ismael Campos-Nonato and Julio C{\'e}sar Campuzano and Alejandra J Cantoral and Jack Caravanos and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and Elisabeth Cardis and David O. Carpenter and Valeria Caso and Carlos Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and Ruben Estanislao Castro and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Fiorella Cavalleri and Alanur Çavlin and Vineet Kumar Chadha and Jung-Chen Chang and Fiona J. Charlson and Honglei Chen and Wanqing Chen and Zhengming Chen and Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and Rajiv Chowdhury and Costas A. Christophi and Ting-Wu Chuang and Sumeet S. Chugh and Massimo Cirillo and Thomas KD Cla{\ss}en and Valentina Colistro and Mercedes Colomar and Samantha M. Colquhoun and Alejandra G Contreras and Cyrus Cooper and Kimberly Cooperrider and Leslie T. Cooper and Josef Coresh and Karen Courville and Michael H. Criqui and Lucia Cuevas-Nasu and James Damsere-Derry and Hadi Danawi and Lalit Dandona and Rakhi Dandona and Paul I Dargan and Adrian Davis and Dragoș Virgil Davițoiu and Anand Dayama and E Filipa de Castro and Vanessa De la Cruz-G{\'o}ngora and Diego De Leo and Graça Lima and Louisa Degenhardt and Borja del Pozo-Cruz and Robert Paul Dellavalle and Kebede Deribe and Sarah Derrett and Don Des Jarlais and Muluken Dessalegn and Gabrielle deVeber and Karen M Devries and Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne and Mukesh Dherani and Daniel J Dicker and Eric L. Ding and Klara Georgieva Dokova and Earl Ray Dorsey and Tim R Driscoll and Lei-lei Duan and Adnan M. Durrani and Beth E Ebel and Richard G. Ellenbogen and Yousef M Elshrek and Matthias Endres and Sergey Petrovich Ermakov and Holly E Erskine and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Saman Fahimi and Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon and Farshad Farzadfar and Derek F J Fay and Valery L. Feigin and Andrea B Feigl and Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad and Alize J Ferrari and Cleusa Pinheiro Ferri and Abraham D. Flaxman and Thomas D. Fleming and Nataliya A Foigt and Kyle Foreman and Urbano Fra Paleo and Richard Charles Franklin and Belinda J. Gabbe and Lynne Gaffikin and Emmanuela Gakidou and Amiran Gamkrelidze and Fortun{\'e} Gb{\`e}toho Gankp{\'e} and Ron T. Gansevoort and Francisco A Garc{\'i}a-Guerra and Evariste Gasana and Johanna Marianna Geleijnse and Bradford D. Gessner and Peter W. Gething and Katherine B. Gibney and Richard Frank Gillum and Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi and Maurice Giroud and Giorgia Giussani and Shifalika Goenka and Ketevan Goginashvili and H{\'e}ctor G{\'o}mez Dant{\'e}s and Philimon N. Gona and Teresita Gonz{\'a}lez de Cos{\'i}o and Dinorah Gonz{\'a}lez-Castell and Carolyn Gotay and Atsushi Goto and Hebe Gouda and Richard L Guerrant and Harish Gugnani and Francis Guillemin and David Gunnell and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and Reyna Alma Guti{\'e}rrez and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Holly Hagan and Maria Hagstromer and Yara A. Halasa and Randah Ribhi Hamadeh and Mouhanad Hammami and Graeme J. Hankey and Yuantao Hao and Hilda L. Harb and Tilahun Nigatu Haregu and Josep Maria Haro and Rasmus J Havmoeller and Simon I. Hay and Mohammad T. Hedayati and Ileana Beatriz Heredia-Pi and Luc{\'i}a Hern{\'a}ndez and Kyle Heuton and Pouria Heydarpour and Martha H{\'i}jar and Hans W. Hoek and Howard J Hoffman and John C. Hornberger and H. Dean Hosgood and Damian G Hoy and Mohamed Hsairi and Guoqing Hu and Howard Hu and Cheng Huang and John J Emmanuel Huang and Bryan Hubbell and Laetitia Huiart and Abdullatif Husseini and Marissa L Iannarone and Kim Moesgaard Iburg and Bulat Idrisov and Nayu Ikeda and Kaire Innos and Manami Inoue and Farhad Islami and Samaya Ismayilova and Kathryn H. Jacobsen and Henrica Afm Jansen and Deborah L. Jarvis and Simerjot Kaur Jassal and Alejandra J{\'a}uregui and Sudha Jayaraman and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Paul N. Jensen and Vivekanand Jha and Fan Jiang and Guo-hong Jiang and Ying Jiang and Jost B. Jonas and Knud Juel and Hai-dong Kan and Sidibe S Kany Roseline and Nadim E. Karam and Andr{\'e} Karch and Corine Karema and Ganesan Karthikeyan and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Dhruv S. Kazi and Andrew Haddon Kemp and Andr{\'e} Pascal Kengne and Andre Keren and Yousef Saleh Khader and Shams Eldin Khalifa and Ejaz Ahmad Khan and Young Ho Khang and Shahab Khatibzadeh and Irma Khonelidze and Christian Kieling and Daniel Kim and Sungroul Kim and Yun Jin Kim and Ruth W. Kimokoti and Yohannes Kinfu and Jonas Minet Kinge and Brett M. Kissela and Miia Kivipelto and Luke D. Knibbs and Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen and Yoshihiro Kokubo and M Rifat Kose and Soewarta Kosen and Alexander Kraemer and Michael A Kravchenko and Sanjay Krishnaswami and Hans Kromhout and Tiffany Ku and Barth{\'e}l{\'e}my Kuate Defo and Burcu Kucuk Bicer and Ernst J. Kuipers and Chanda Kulkarni and Veena S. Kulkarni and G Anil Kumar and Gene F. Kwan and Taavi Lai and Arjun Lakshmana Balaji and Ratilal Lalloo and Tea Lallukka and Hilton Y. Lam and Qing Lan and Van Charles Lansingh and Heidi Jane Larson and Anders Larsson and Dennis Odai Laryea and Pablo Manuel Lavados and Alicia Elena Beatriz Lawrynowicz and Janet L. Leasher and Jong-Tae Lee and James Leigh and Ricky C. Leung and Miriam Levi and Yichong Li and Yongmei Li and Juan Liang and Xiaofeng Liang and Stephen S. Lim and M Patrice Lindsay and Steven E. Lipshultz and Shiwei Liu and Yang Liu and Belinda K. Lloyd and Giancarlo Logroscino and Stephanie J. London and Nancy Lopez and Joannie Lortet-Tieulent and Paulo Andrade Lotufo and Rafael Lozano and Raimundas Lunevicius and Jixiang Ma and Stefan Ma and Vasco Manuel Pedro Machado and Michael F Macintyre and Carlos Magis-Rodr{\'i}guez and Abbasi Mahdi and Marek Majdan and Reza Malekzadeh and S. Chandra Kumar Mangalam and Christopher Chabila Mapoma and Marape Marape and Wagner Marcenes and David J. Margolis and Christopher Margono and Guy B. Marks and Randall V. Martin and Melvin Barrientos Marzan and Mohammad Taufiq Mashal and Felix Masiye and Amanda J. Mason-Jones and Kunihiro Matsushita and Richard G Matzopoulos and Bongani M. Mayosi and Tasara Mazorodze and Abigail C. McKay and Martin Mckee and Abigail Mclain and Peter A. Meaney and Catalina Medina and Man M Mehndiratta and Fabiola Mej{\'i}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and Wubegzier Mekonnen and Yohannes Adama Melaku and Michele Meltzer and Ziad A. Memish and Walter Mendoza and George A. Mensah and Atte Meretoja and Francis Mhimbira and Renata Micha and Ted R. Miller and Edward J. Mills and Awoke Misganaw and Santosh Kumar Mishra and Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim and Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad and Ali H. Mokdad and Glen D L Mola and Lorenzo Monasta and Julio Cesar Monta{\~n}ez Hernandez and Marcella Montico and Ami R. Moore and Lidia Morawska and Rintaro Mori and Joanna Moschandreas and Wilkister Nyaora Moturi and Dariush Mozaffarian and Ulrich Otto Mueller and Mitsuru Mukaigawara and Erin C Mullany and Kinnari S Murthy and Mohsen Naghavi and Ziad Nahas and Aliya Naheed and Kovin S. Naidoo and Luigi Naldi and Devina Nand and Vinay Nangia and K. M. Venkat Narayan and Denis Nash and Bruce Neal and C. Nejjari and Sudan Prasad Neupane and Charles R. Newton and Frida Namnyak Ngalesoni and Jean de Dieu Ngirabega and Grant Nguyen and Nhung T. T. Nguyen and Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen and Muhammad Imran Nisar and Jos{\'e} Rocha Nogueira and Joan Maria Roure Nolla and Sandra Nolte and Ole Frithjof Norheim and Rosana E Norman and Bo Norrving and Luke Nyakarahuka and In-Hwan Oh and Takayoshi Ohkubo and Bolajoko O. Olusanya and Saad B. Omer and John Nelson Opio and Ricardo Orozco and Rodolfo S Pagcatipunan and Amanda W Pain and Jeyaraj Durai Pandian and Carlo Irwin Able Panelo and Christina Papachristou and Eun‐Kee Park and Charles D. H. Parry and Angel Jose Paternina Caicedo and Scott B. Patten and Vinod K Paul and Boris Igor Pavlin and Neil Pearce and Lilia S Pedraza and Andrea Pedroza and Ljiljana Pejin Stoki{\'c} and Ayfer Pekericli and David M Pereira and Rog{\'e}lio Perez-Padilla and Fernando Perez-Ruiz and Norberto Perico and Samuel A.L. Perry and Aslam Pervaiz and Konrad Pesudovs and Carrie Beth Peterson and Max Petzold and Michael Robert Phillips and Hwee Pin Phua and Dietrich Plass and Dan V. Poenaru and Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk and Suzanne Polinder and Constance Dimity Pond and C. Arden Pope and Daniel Pope and Svetlana Popova and Farshad Pourmalek and John W. Powles and Dorairaj Prabhakaran and Noela Marie Prasad and Dima Mazen Qato and Amado David Quezada and D. Alex Quistberg and Lionel Racap{\'e} and Anwar Rafay and Kazem Rahimi and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar and Sajjad Ur Rahman and Murugesan Raju and Ivo Rakovac and Saleem Muhammad Rana and Mayuree Rao and Homie Razavi and K. Srinath Reddy and Amany Refaat and J{\"u}rgen Rehm and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Ant{\^o}nio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro and Patricia M. Riccio and Lee Richardson and Anne M Riederer and Margaret Robinson and Anna Roca and Alina Rodriguez and David Rojas-Rueda and Isabelle Romieu and Luca Ronfani and Robin Room and Nobhojit Roy and George Ruhago and Lesley Rushton and Nsanzimana Sabin and Ralph L. Sacco and Sukanta Saha and Ramesh Sahathevan and Mohammad Ali Sahraian and Joshua A. Salomon and Deborah Salvo and Uchechukwu Sampson and Juan Ramon Sanabria and Luz Mar{\'i}a S{\'a}nchez and Tania G. S{\'a}nchez-Pimienta and L{\'i}dia S{\`a}nchez-Riera and Logan Sandar and Itamar de Souza Santos and Amir Sapkota and Maheswar Satpathy and James E. Saunders and Monika Sawhney and Mete I. Saylan and Peter Scarborough and J{\"u}rgen C Schmidt and Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider and Ben Sch{\"o}ttker and David C. Schwebel and James G. Scott and Soraya Seedat and Sadaf G. Sepanlou and Berrin Serdar and Edson Serv{\'a}n-Mori and Gavin Shaddick and Saeid Shahraz and Teresa Shamah Levy and Siyi Shangguan and Jun She and Sara Sheikhbahaei and Kenji Shibuya and Hwashin Hyun Shin and Yukito Shinohara and Rahman Shiri and Kawkab Shishani and Ivy Shiue and Inga Dora Sigfusdottir and Donald Silberberg and Edgar P. Simard and Shireen Sindi and Abhishek Singh and Gitanjali M Singh and Jasvinder A. Singh and Vegard Skirbekk and Karen Sliwa and Michael Soljak and Samir S Soneji and Kjetil S{\o}reide and Sergey S Soshnikov and Luciano A. Sposato and Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy and Nicolas J C Stapelberg and Vasiliki Kalliopi Stathopoulou and Nadine Steckling and Dan J Stein and Murray B. Stein and Natalie Stephens and Heidi St{\"o}ckl and Kurt Straif and Konstantinos Stroumpoulis and Lela Sturua and Bruno F. Sunguya and Soumya Swaminathan and Mamta Swaroop and Bryan L. Sykes and Karen M. Tabb and Ken Takahashi and Roberto Tchio Talongwa and Nikhil Tandon and David Tann{\'e} and Marcel Tanner and Mohammad Tavakkoli and Braden J Te Ao and Carolina Maria Teixeira and Martha Mar{\'i}a T{\'e}llez Rojo and Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi and Jos{\'e} Luis Texcalac-Sangrador and Sarah Thackway and Blake Thomson and Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman and Amanda G. Thrift and George D. Thurston and Taavi Tillmann and Myriam Tobollik and Marcello Tonelli and Fotis Topouzis and Jeffrey A. Towbin and Hideaki Toyoshima and Jefferson Luiz Traebert and Bach Xuan Tran and Leonardo Trasande and Matias Trillini and Ulises Trujillo and Zacharie T. Dimbuene and Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris and E. Murat Tuzcu and Uche S Uchendu and Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja and Selen Beg{\"u}m Uzun and Steven van de Vijver and Rita Van Dingenen and Coen H. van Gool and Jim van Os and Yuri Y Varakin and Tommi Vasankari and Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos and Monica S. Vavilala and Lennert Veerman and Gustavo Vel{\'a}squez-Melendez and Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian and Lakshmi Vijayakumar and Salvador Villalpando and Francesco Saverio Violante and Vasiliy V. Vlassov and Stein Emil Vollset and Gregory R Wagner and Stephen G Waller and Mitchell T. Wallin and Xia Wan and Haidong Wang and Jianli Wang and Linhong Wang and Wenzhi Wang and Yan-ping Wang and Tati S. Warouw and Charlotte Watts and Scott Weichenthal and Elisabete Weiderpass and Robert G Weintraub and Andrea Werdecker and K. Ryan Wessells and Ronny Westerman and Harvey A. Whiteford and James D. Wilkinson and Hywel C. Williams and Thomas N. Williams and Solomon M. Woldeyohannes and Charles D.A. Wolfe and John Q. Wong and Anthony D. Woolf and Jonathan L. Wright and Brittany R. Wurtz and Gelin Xu and Lijing L. Yan and Gonghuan Yang and Yuichiro Yano and Pengpeng Ye and Muluken Azage Yenesew and G{\"o}kalp Kadri Yent{\"u}r and Paul Yip and Naohiro Yonemoto and Seok-Jun Yoon and Mustafa Z. Younis and Zourkaleini Younoussi and Chuanhua Yu and Maysaa El Sayed Zaki and Yong Zhao and Yingfeng Zheng and Maigeng Zhou and Jun Zhu and Shankuan Zhu and Xiao-nong Zou and Joseph R. Zunt and Alan D. Lopez and Theo Vos and Christopher J. L. Murray},
  journal={The Lancet},

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