Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

@inproceedings{Forouzanfar2016GlobalRA,
  title={Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015},
  author={Mohammad Hossein Forouzanfar and Ashkan Afshin and Lily T Alexander and Hugh Ross Anderson and Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta and Stan H. Biryukov and Michael Brauer and Richard T. Burnett and Kelly Cercy and F J Charlson and Aaron J. Cohen and Lalit Dandona and Kara Estep and Alize J. Ferrari and Joseph J. Frostad and Nancy Fullman and Peter W. Gething and William W. Godwin and Max Griswold and Simon I. Hay and Yohannes Kinfu and Hmwe H Kyu and Heidi J. Larson and Xiaofeng Liang and Stephen S. Lim and Patrick Yantyng Liu and Alan D Lopez and Rafael Lozano and Laurie Marczak and George A. Mensah and Ali H. Mokdad and Maziar Moradi-Lakeh and Mohsen Naghavi and Bruce Neal and Marissa Bettay Reitsma and Gregory A. Roth and Joshua A Salomon and Patrick J Sur and Theo Vos and Joseph A Wagner and Haidong Wang and Yi Zhao and Maigeng Zhou and Gunn Marit Aasvang and Amanuel A Abajobir and Kalkidan Hassen Abate and Cristiana Abbafati and Kaja M. Abbas and Foad Abd-Allah and Abdishakur M. Abdulle and Semaw Ferede Abera and Biju Abraham and Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad and Gebre Yitayih Abyu and Akindele Olupelumi Adebiyi and Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji and Zanfina Ademi and Ars{\`e}ne Kouablan Adou and Jos{\'e} Carmelo Adsuar and Emilie Elisabet Agardh and Arnav Agarwal and Anurag Agrawal and Aliasghar A Kiadaliri and Oluremi N. Ajala and Tomi F Akinyemiju and Ziyad Al-Aly and Khurshid Alam and Noore K M Alam and Saleh Fahed S Aldhahri and Robert W Aldridge and Zewdie Aderaw Alemu and Raghib Ali and Ala'a Alkerwi and François Alla and Peter Allebeck and Ubai Alsharif and Khalid A. Altirkawi and Elena Alvarez Martin and Nelson Rafael Alvis-Guzm{\'a}n and Azmeraw T Amare and Alemayehu Amberbir and Adeladza Kofi Amegah and Heresh Amini and Walid Hakimiand Mahmoud Ammar and Stephen Marc Amrock and Hjalte Holm Andersen and Benjamin O. Anderson and Carl Abelardo T. Antonio and Palwasha Anwari and Johan {\"A}rnl{\"o}v and Al Artaman and Hamid Asayesh and Rana Jawad Asghar and Reza Assadi and Suleman Atique and Euripide Frinel G. Arthur Avokpaho and Ashish Awasthi and Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla and Peter Azzopardi and Umar Qadir Bacha and Alaa Badawi and Mar{\'i}a Cecilia Bahit and K. S. Balakrishnan and Aleksandra Bara{\'c} and Ryan M Barber and Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo and Till B{\"a}rnighausen and Sim{\'o}n Barquera and Lars Barreg{\aa}rd and Lope H. Barrero and Sanjay Basu and Carolina Batis and Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi and Justin Beardsley and Neeraj Bedi and Ettore Beghi and Brent Bell and Michelle L. Bell and Aminu K. Bello and Derrick A Bennett and Isabela Judith Martins Bense{\~n}or and Adugnaw Berhane and Eduardo Parrilla Bernab{\'e} and Balem Demtsu Betsu and Addisu Shunu Beyene and Neeraj Bhala and Anil Bhansali and Samir Bhatt and Sibhatu Biadgilign and Boris Bikbov and Donal Bisanzio and Espen Bjertness and Jed Daniel Blore and Rohan Borschmann and Soufiane Boufous and Rupert R A Bourne and Michael Brainin and Alexandra Bra{\vz}inov{\'a} and Nicholas J. K. Breitborde and H. Brenner and David M. Broday and Traolach S. Brugha and Bert A Brunekreef and Zahid Ahmad Butt and Leah E. Cahill and Bianca Calabria and Ismael Ricardo Campos-Nonato and Rosario C{\'a}rdenas and D. E. O. S. Carpenter and Juan Jes{\'u}s Carrero and Daniel C. Casey and Carlos Andr{\'e}s Casta{\~n}eda-Orjuela and Jacqueline Castillo Rivas and Ruben Estanislao Castro and Ferr{\'a}n Catal{\'a}-L{\'o}pez and Jung-Chen Chang and Pei-Chia Chiang and Mirriam Chibalabala and Odgerel Chimed-Ochir and Vesper Hichilombwe Chisumpa and Abdulaal A. Chitheer and Jee-Young Jasmine Choi and Hanne Christensen and Devasahayam J Christopher and Liliana G. Ciobanu and Matthew M. Coates and Samantha M. Colquhoun and Alejandra G Contreras Manzano and Leslie Trumbull Cooper and Kimberly Cooperrider and Leslie Cornaby and Monica Cortinovis and John A Crump and Luc{\'i}a Cuevas-Nasu and Albertino Damasceno and Rakhi Dandona and Sarah C. Darby and Paul Ivor Dargan and Jos{\'e} das Neves and Adrian C J Davis and Kairat Davletov and Elga Filipa Amorin de Castro and Vanessa Vianey De la Cruz-G{\'o}ngora and Diego de Leo and Louisa Degenhardt and Liana C. Del Gobbo and Borja Del Pozo-Cruz and Robert P. Dellavalle and Amare Deribew and Don Des Jarlais and Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne and Preet Kaur Dhillon and C{\`e}sar D{\'i}az-Torn{\'e} and Daniel J Dicker and Eric L. Ding and E. Ray Dorsey and Kerrie Esme Doyle and Timothy Robert Driscoll and Leilei Duan and Manisha Dubey and Bruce Bartholow Duncan and Iqbal Elyazar and Aman Yesuf Endries and Sergey Petrovich Ermakov and Holly E. Erskine and Babak Eshrati and Alireza Esteghamati and Saman Fahimi and Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon and Talha Farid and Carla Farinha and Andr{\'e} de Mattos Faro and Maryam S. Farvid and Farshad Farzadfar and Valery L. Feigin and Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad and Jefferson Fernandes and Florian Fischer and Joseph Robert Anderson Fitchett and T. Fleming and Nataliya Foigt and Kyle Foreman and Francis Gerry R. Fowkes and Richard Charles Franklin and Thomas F{\"u}rst and Neal D. Futran and Emmanuela Gakidou and Alberto L. Garc{\'i}a-Basteiro and Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot and Amanuel Tesfay Gebremedhin and Johanna M Geleijnse and Bradford D. Gessner and Ababi Zergaw Giref and Maurice Giroud and Melkamu Dedefo Gishu and Giorgia Giussani and Shifalika Goenka and Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera and H{\'e}ctor G{\'o}mez-Dant{\'e}s and Philimon Nyakauru Gona and Amador Goodridge and Sameer Vali Gopalani and Carolyn Gotay and Atsushi Goto and Hebe N. Gouda and Harish Chander Gugnani and Francis Guillemin and Yuming Guo and Rahul Gupta and Rajeev Gupta and Reyna Alma Guti{\'e}rrez and Juanita Haagsma and Nima Hafezi-Nejad and Demewoz Haile and Gessessew Bugssa Hailu and Yara A. Halasa and Randah Ribhi Hamadeh and Samer Hamidi and Alexis J. Handal and Graeme J. Hankey and Yuantao Hao and Hilda L. Harb and S Harikrishnan and Josep Maria Haro and Mohammad Sadegh Hassanvand and Tahir Ahmed Hassen and Rasmus Havmoeller and Ileana Beatriz Heredia-Pi and Norberto Francisco Hern{\'a}ndez-Llanes and P Heydarpour and Hans W Hoek and Howard J Hoffman and Masako Horino and Nobuyuki Horita and Howard Dean Hosgood and Damian G Hoy and Mohamed Hsairi and Aung Soe Htet and Guoqing Hu and J. J. Huang and Abdullatif S. Husseini and Sally J Hutchings and Inge Huybrechts and Kim Moesgaard Iburg and Bulat Idrisov and Bogdan Vasile Ileanu and Manami Inoue and Troy Jacobs and Kathryn H Jacobsen and Nader Jahanmehr and Mihajlo B Jakovljevic and Henrica A. F. M. Jansen and Simerjot Kaur Jassal and Mehdi Javanbakht and Sudha Jayaraman and Achala Jayatilleke and Sun Ha Jee and Panniyammakal Jeemon and Vivekanand Jha and Ying Jiang and Tariku Jibat and Ye Jin and Catherine O. Johnson and Jost B Jonas and Z. Kabir and Yogeshwar V Kalkonde and Ritul Kamal and Haidong Kan and Andr{\'e} Karch and Corine Kakizi Karema and C Karimkhani and Amir Kasaeian and Anil Kaul and Norito Kawakami and Dhruv S Kazi and Peter Njenga Keiyoro and Laura Kemmer and Andrew Haddon Kemp and Andre Pascal Kengne and Andre Keren and Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran and Yousef S Khader and Abdur Rahman Khan and Ejaz Ahmad Khan and Gulfaraz Khan and Young Ho Khang and Shahab Khatibzadeh and Sahil Khera and Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer Khoja and Jagdish Khubchandani and Christian Kieling and Cho-il Kim and Daniel Kim and Ruth W. Kimokoti and Niranjan Kissoon and Miia Kivipelto and Luke D. Knibbs and Yoshihiro Kokubo and Jacek A. Kopec and Parvaiz A Koul and Ai Koyanagi and Michael Kravchenko and Hans Kromhout and Hans Krueger and Tiffany Ku and Barth{\'e}lemy Kuate Defo and Ricardo S. Kuchenbecker and Burcu Kucuk Bicer and Ernst J Kuipers and G. Suvarna Kumar and Gene F Kwan and Dharmesh Kumar Lal and Ratilal Lalloo and Tea Lallukka and Qing Lan and A. Larsson and Asma Abdul Abdul Latif and Alicia Elena Beatriz Lawrynowicz and Janet L Leasher and James Leigh and Janni Leung and Miriam Levi and Xiaohong Li and Yichong Li and Juan Liang and Shiwei Liu and Belinda K Lloyd and Giancarlo Logroscino and Paulo Andrade Lotufo and Raimundas Lunevi{\vc}ius and Michael F Macintyre and Mahdi Mahdavi and Marek Majdan and Azeem Majeed and Reza Malekzadeh and Deborah Carvalho Malta and Wondimu Ayele Ayele Manamo and Chabila C. Mapoma and Wagner Marcenes and R. Martin and Jos{\'e} Mart{\'i}nez-Raga and Felix Masiye and Kunihiro Matsushita and Richard G Matzopoulos and Bongani M. Mayosi and J J Mcgrath and Martin McKee and Peter A. Meaney and Catalina Medina and Alem Mehari and Fabiola Mej{\'i}a-Rodr{\'i}guez and Alemayehu B. Mekonnen and Yohannes Adama Melaku and Ziad Ahmed Memish and W. P. Mendoza and Gert B. M. Mensink and Atte Meretoja and Tuomo J. Meretoja and Yonatan Moges Mesfin and Francis Mhimbira and Anoushka I. Millear and Ted R Miller and Edward Mills and Mojde Mirarefin and Awoke Misganaw and Charles N. Mock and Alireza Mohammadi and Shafiu Mohammed and Glen Liddell D Mola and Lorenzo Monasta and Julio Cesar Monta{\~n}ez Hernandez and Marcella Montico and Lidia Morawska and Rintaro Mori and Dariush Mozaffarian and Ulrich Otto Mueller and Erin C Mullany and John Everett Mumford and Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana Murthy and Jean Nachega and Aliya Naheed and Vinay K. Nangia and Nariman Nassiri and John N. Newton and Marie Cicelie C. Ng and Quyen L. Nguyen and Muhammad Imran Nisar and Patrick Martial Nkamedjie Pete and Ole Frithjof Norheim and Rosana E Norman and Bo Norrving and Luke Nyakarahuka and Carla Makhlouf Obermeyer and Felix Akpojene Ogbo and In Hwan Oh and Olanrewaju Oladimeji and Pedro R Olivares and Helen Elizabeth Olsen and Bolajoko O Olusanya and Jacob Olusegun Olusanya and John Nelson Opio and Eyal Oren and Ricardo Orozco and Alberto Ortiz and Erika Ota and Mahesh Pa and Adrian Pană and E L Park and Charles D H Parry and Mahboubeh Parsaeian and Tejas Patel and Angel J Paternina Caicedo and Snehal T Patil and Scott B Patten and George C. Patton and Neil Pearce and David Montero Pereira and Norberto Perico and Konrad Pesudovs and Max Petzold and Michael Phillips and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric B Piel and Julian David Pillay and Dietrich Plass and Suzanne Polinder and Constance Dimity Pond and Christina Pope and Daniel P Pope and Svetlana Popova and Richie G. Poulton and Farshad Pourmalek and Noela Marie Prasad and Mostafa Qorbani and Rynaz H S Rabiee and Amir Radfar and Anwar Rafay and Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar and Mahfuzar Rahman and Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman and Sajjad U R Rahman and Rajesh Kumar Rai and Sasa Rajsic and Murugesan Raju and Usha Ram and Saleem M. Rana and Kavitha Ranganathan and P. Chandrasekhar Rao and Christian Aspacia Razo Garc{\'i}a and Amany H. Refaat and Colin D Rehm and J{\"u}rgen Rehm and Nikolas Reinig and Giuseppe Remuzzi and Serge Resnikoff and Ant{\^o}nio Luiz Pinho Ribeiro and Juan A Rivera and Hirbo Shore Roba and A. Garcia Rodriguez and Sonia Rodr{\'i}guez-Ram{\'i}rez and David Rojas-Rueda},
  booktitle={The Lancet},
  year={2016}
}
BACKGROUND The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. METHODS We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate… CONTINUE READING
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Mentioned Connections BETA
Between 1990 and 2015 , global exposure to unsafe sanitation , household air pollution , childhood underweight , childhood stunting , and smoking each decreased by more than 25% .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
In 2015 , the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure ( 211·8 million [ 192·7 million to 231·1 million ] global DALYs ) , smoking ( 148·6 million [ 134·2 million to 163·1 million ] ) , high fasting plasma glucose ( 143·1 million [ 125·1 million to 163·5 million ] ) , high BMI ( 120·1 million [ 83·8 million to 158·4 million ] ) , childhood undernutrition ( 113·3 million [ 103·9 million to 123·4 million ] ) , ambient particulate matter ( 103·1 million [ 90·8 million to 115·1 million ] ) , high total cholesterol ( 88·7 million [ 74·6 million to 105·7 million ] ) , household air pollution ( 85·6 million [ 66·7 million to 106·1 million ] ) , alcohol use ( 85·0 million [ 77·2 million to 93·0 million ] ) , and diets high in sodium ( 83·0 million [ 49·3 million to 127·5 million ] ) .
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