Glacier retreat and melt-lake expansion at Stephenson Glacier, Heard Island World Heritage Area

  title={Glacier retreat and melt-lake expansion at Stephenson Glacier, Heard Island World Heritage Area},
  author={Kevin Kiernan and Anne McConnell},
  journal={Polar Record},
  pages={297 - 308}
Abstract Historical records, recent observations, and geomorphological evidence indicate that rates of retreat and downwasting of the tidewater Stephenson Glacier, and concurrent expansion of ice-marginal melt-lakes, has increased by an order of magnitude since 1987. Melt-lake expansion is partly the product of greatly accelerated ablation of older, ice-cored twentieth-century moraines. The timing of these changes broadly coincides with reported increases in atmospheric and sea-surface… 

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