Ginsenosides Regulate PXR/NF-κB Signaling and Attenuate Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.


Pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation exhibits anti-inflammatory effects via repressing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); however, its overactivation may disrupt homeostasis of various enzymes and transporters. Here we found that ginsenosides restore PXR/NF-κB signaling in inflamed conditions without disrupting PXR function in normal conditions. The effects and mechanisms of ginsenosides in regulating PXR/NF-κB signals were determined both in vitro and in vivo. Ginsenosides significantly inhibited NF-κB activation and restored the expression of PXR target genes in tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated LS174T cells. Despite not being PXR agonists, ginsenosides repressed NF-κB activation in a PXR-dependent manner. Ginsenosides significantly increased the physical association between PXR and the NF-κB p65 subunit and thereby decreased the nuclear translocation of p65. Ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K (CK) were major bioactive compounds in the regulating PXR/NF-κB signaling. Consistently, ginsenosides significantly attenuated dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis, which was associated with restored PXR/NF-κB signaling. This study indicates that ginsenosides may elicit anti-inflammatory effects via targeting PXR/NF-κB interaction without disrupting PXR function in healthy conditions. Ginsenoside Rb1 and CK may serve as leading compounds in the discovery of new drugs that target PXR/NF-κB interaction in therapy for inflammatory bowel disease.

DOI: 10.1124/dmd.115.063800

Cite this paper

@article{Zhang2015GinsenosidesRP, title={Ginsenosides Regulate PXR/NF-κB Signaling and Attenuate Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.}, author={Jun Zhang and Lijuan Cao and Hong Wang and Xuefang Cheng and Lin Wang and Lin Zhu and Tingting Yan and Yang Xie and Yuzheng C. Wu and Min Zhao and Sijing Ma and Mengqiu Wu and Guang-Ji Wang and Haiping Hao}, journal={Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals}, year={2015}, volume={43 8}, pages={1181-9} }