Functional outcome after intracerebral haemorrhage - a review of the potential role of antiapoptotic agents.
Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory arterial disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is directly associated with chronic vascular inflammation. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that ginkgolide B, a component of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for heart disorder, may affect ox-LDL-induced inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that the ox-LDL treatment caused a significantly increase in the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs, which was associated with a dramatic augmentation in phosphorylation of IkappaB and relocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) into the nuclei. Interestingly, the ox-LDL-induced ICAM-1 expression and NF-kappaB relocation could be attenuated by addition of ginkgolide B. Moreover, ginkgolide B significantly reduces ox-LDL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In conclusion, ginkgolide B may decrease inflammatory responses induced by ox-LDL via blocking NF-kappaB signaling and inhibiting ROS generation in HUVECs.