Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology

  title={Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi: genes, enzymes, evolution, and impact on biotechnology},
  author={Bettina Tudzynski},
  journal={Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology},
  • B. Tudzynski
  • Published 1 March 2005
  • Biology, Engineering
  • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Gibberellins (GAs) constitute a large family of tetracyclic diterpenoid carboxylic acids, some members of which function as growth hormones in higher plants. As well as being phytohormones, GAs are also present in some fungi and bacteria. In recent years, GA biosynthetic genes from Fusarium fujikuroi and Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned and well characterised. Although higher plants and the fungus both produce structurally identical GAs, there are important differences indicating that GA… 
Elucidation of gibberellin biosynthesis in bacteria reveals convergent evolution.
It is demonstrated that this operon encodes the enzymes necessary to produce GA9, thereby elucidating bacterial GA biosynthesis and revealing a central biochemical logic that is followed in all three convergently evolved GA biosynthetic pathways.
Biochemical and Molecular Analyses of Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Fungi
  • H. Kawaide
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • 2006
The plant hormone, gibberellin (GA), regulates plant growth and development. It was first isolated as a superelongation-promoting diterpenoid from the fungus, Gibberella fujikuroi. G. fujikuroi uses
Restoration of Gibberellin Production in Fusarium proliferatum by Functional Complementation of Enzymatic Blocks
In this study, additional enzymatic blocks at the first specific steps in the GA biosynthesis pathway of F. proliferatum are determined: the synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate andThe synthesis of ent-kaurene.
Genomic insights in moss gibberellin biosynthesis
Genes that may be involved in gibberellin biosynthesis have now been identified, paving the way for molecular genetic experiments that could reveal the role of gibBerellins in bryophyte development.
Gibberellin Phytohormone Metabolism
In plants GA biosynthesis shares steps in common with other isoprenoid and related diterpenoid natural products, and an overview is provided of the necessary metabolic integration as well as various catabolic process involved in breaking down bioactive GAs in planta.
Adenylyl Cyclase Plays a Regulatory Role in Development, Stress Resistance and Secondary Metabolism in Fusarium fujikuroi
A targeted mutation of the acyA gene of F. fujikuroi showed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress (H2O2), but no change in heavy metal resistance or in the ability to colonize tomato tissue, indicating a high versatility in the regulatory roles played by cAMP in this fungal group.
Molecular and functional evolution of the fungal diterpene synthase genes
The results obtained here suggest that fungal di-TPSs originated from an ancient HGT event of a single diterpene synthase gene from a plant to a fungus in Ascomycota, suggesting the presence of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events.


Biosynthesis of gibberellins in Gibberella fujikuroi: biomolecular aspects
  • B. Tudzynski
  • Biology
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • 1999
This review gives a short overview of the well-known physiological and biochemical studies and concentrates mainly on the new molecular genetic data from GA research, including new information on the regulation of GA biosynthesis.
A carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster in Fusarium fujikuroi: the genes carB and carRA
The function of carRA is determined by gene disruption, suggesting the existence of a feedback regulatory mechanism in the filamentous fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.
The isoprenoid pathway: cloning and characterization of fungal FPPS genes
Transcription analysis in different light regimes has shown that the FPPS genes in G. fujikuroi and N. crassa are not regulated by light induction, and sequence analysis showed a high degree of similarity between the deduced proteins of all known FPP synthase genes.
A new MFS-transporter gene next to the gibberellin biosynthesis gene cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi is not involved in gibberellin secretion
The cloning and characterization of smt, a gene encoding a membrane transporter of the major facilitator superfamily I, which is located next to the GA gene cluster, demonstrate that the smt gene does not play an essential role in biosynthesis and secretion of GAs in G. fujikuroi.
Deletion of the Gibberella fujikuroi glutamine synthetase gene has significant impact on transcriptional control of primary and secondary metabolism
Not only glutamine, but also GS itself might play an important role in nitrogen metabolite repression, as reported in Gibberella fujikuroi.
Characterization of the Final Two Genes of the Gibberellin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Gibberella fujikuroi
It is demonstrated by gene disruption that P450-3, one of the four cytochrome P450 monooxygenase genes in the GA gene cluster, encodes the 13-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the conversion of GA7 to GA3, in the last step of the pathway.
The P450–1 gene of Gibberella fujikuroi encodes a multifunctional enzyme in gibberellin biosynthesis
P450–1 displays remarkable multifunctionality and may be responsible for the formation of 12 products in the GA-biosynthesis pathway, including kaurenolides and fujenoic acids, which are by-products of GA biosynthesis in G. fujikuroi.
AREA directly mediates nitrogen regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis in Gibberella fujikuroi, but its activity is not affected by NMR
It is demonstrated that the expression level of six of the seven GA biosynthesis genes is drastically reduced in mutants lacking areA, and it is postulate that, in contrast to A. nidulans and N. crassa, NMR does not function independently as the main modulator of AREA in G. fujikuroi.
The Gibberellin 20-Oxidase of Gibberella fujikuroi Is a Multifunctional Monooxygenase*
The functional analysis of the P450-2 gene by gene disruption and by expressing the gene in a mutant that lacks the entire GA biosynthesis gene cluster are described, providing further evidence for independent evolution of the GA biosynthetic pathways in plants and fungi.
The geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene of Gibberella fujikuroi: isolation and expression
Abstract The rice pathogen, Gibberella fujikuroi, produces large amounts of gibberellins, a group of natural plant hormones, which induce the superelongation (bakanae) disease of rice. Gibberellins