Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.

  title={Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.},
  author={Peter Hedden and Stephen G Thomas},
  journal={The Biochemical journal},
  volume={444 1},
The GAs (gibberellins) comprise a large group of diterpenoid carboxylic acids that are ubiquitous in higher plants, in which certain members function as endogenous growth regulators, promoting organ expansion and developmental changes. These compounds are also produced by some species of lower plants, fungi and bacteria, although, in contrast to higher plants, the function of GAs in these organisms has only recently been investigated and is still unclear. In higher plants, GAs are synthesized… 

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The Current Status of Research on Gibberellin Biosynthesis

  • P. Hedden
  • Environmental Science
    Plant & cell physiology
  • 2020
The current understanding of gibberellin metabolism and its regulation is described, highlighting the more recent advances in this field.


This review covers recent advances in gibberellins (GA) signaling, pathway from GA metabolism to the downstream responses and pay special attention to the regulatory molecular mechanisms.

Gibberellins and the Red Pigments Bikaverin and Fusarubin

In this review, the distribution, toxicity, biosynthesis, and regulation of three secondary metabolites, the gibberellic acids as well as the two groups of red pigments, bikaverins and fusarubins, are discussed in detail with the focus on the plant-pathogenic ascomycete F. fujikuroi.

Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation.

Results from a wide range of studies indicate that GAs are required at different stages of nodulation, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation.

Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110

It is found that expression of the operon was consistently upregulated during early-stage nodulation across different rhizobia in bacteria, indicating a possible biological role of bacterial gibberellin.

Gibberellin biosynthesis by bacteria and its effect on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis

It appears that rhizobia produce GA in order to manipulate their host during symbiosis, specifically by increasing the size of the nodules in which they reside, thereby increasing the number of bacteria within the nodule that can be released into the soil.

The gibberellin precursor GA12 acts as a long-distance growth signal in Arabidopsis

The existence of long-range transport of endogenous GA12 in plants that may have implications for the control of developmental phase transitions and the adaptation to adverse environments is revealed.

Elucidation of gibberellin biosynthesis in bacteria reveals convergent evolution.

It is demonstrated that this operon encodes the enzymes necessary to produce GA9, thereby elucidating bacterial GA biosynthesis and revealing a central biochemical logic that is followed in all three convergently evolved GA biosynthetic pathways.

Investigating the interplay between gibberellin signaling and cell cycle control

The evidence suggests that GAI and RGA regulate the G1 to S phase of the plant cell cycle and are functionally different, and the GAI-RBR association might be under the control of CDK activity.

CYP72A enzymes catalyse 13-hydrolyzation of gibberellins

A new subfamily of cytochrome P450 enzymes has been identified to be responsible for gibberelin deactivation in Brassicaceae, and recombinant CYP72A9 protein catalysed the conversion of 13-H GAs to the corresponding 13-OH GAs.



Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation.

Current understanding of the GA biosynthesis and deactivation pathways in plants and fungi is summarized, and how GA concentrations in plant tissues are regulated during development and in response to environmental stimuli is discussed.

The oxidases of gibberellin biosynthesis: Their function and mechanism

The major oxygenases of GA biosynthesis are described and their reactions are discussed in an attempt to rationalise this multifunctionality.

Contribution of the Mevalonate and Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathways to the Biosynthesis of Gibberellins inArabidopsis *

Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that both MVA and MEP pathways can contribute to the biosyntheses of GAs and campesterol, a cytosolic sterol, in Arabidopsisseedlings and provided evidence to suggest that the MVA pathway still contributes to GA biosynthesis when this pathway is limiting.

Distinct and overlapping roles of two gibberellin 3-oxidases in Arabidopsis development.

Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, it has been shown that each AtGA3ox gene exhibits a unique organ-specific expression pattern, suggesting distinct developmental roles played by individual AtGA2ox members of the Gibberellin 3-oxidase family.

Auxin acts independently of DELLA proteins in regulating gibberellin levels

Evidence is provided that the generality of the auxin-GA relationship across species and phylogenetic groups or across different tissue types and responses is not shown, and issues are discussed below as well as the need for the development of suitable experimental systems to allow this process to be examined.

The Gibberellin 20-Oxidase of Gibberella fujikuroi Is a Multifunctional Monooxygenase*

The functional analysis of the P450-2 gene by gene disruption and by expressing the gene in a mutant that lacks the entire GA biosynthesis gene cluster are described, providing further evidence for independent evolution of the GA biosynthetic pathways in plants and fungi.

Developmental regulation of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene GA1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

GA1 gene expression is highly regulated during growth and development, and it is restricted to specific cell types at the sites of expression, suggesting that GA1 may act as a gatekeeper, controlling the flow of metabolites into the GA biosynthetic pathway, while the levels of specific bioactive GAs are controlled by other downstream steps.

Gibberellin as a factor in floral regulatory networks.

Gibberellins promote flowering in Arabidopsis through the activation of genes encoding the floral integrators SUPPRESSOR of OVEREXPRESSION of CONSTANS 1, LEAFY, and FLOWERING LOCUS T in the inflorescence and floral meristems, and in leaves, respectively.