Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.

@article{Hedden2012GibberellinBA,
  title={Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.},
  author={Peter Hedden and Stephen G Thomas},
  journal={The Biochemical journal},
  year={2012},
  volume={444 1},
  pages={
          11-25
        }
}
The GAs (gibberellins) comprise a large group of diterpenoid carboxylic acids that are ubiquitous in higher plants, in which certain members function as endogenous growth regulators, promoting organ expansion and developmental changes. These compounds are also produced by some species of lower plants, fungi and bacteria, although, in contrast to higher plants, the function of GAs in these organisms has only recently been investigated and is still unclear. In higher plants, GAs are synthesized… 

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The Current Status of Research on Gibberellin Biosynthesis

  • P. Hedden
  • Environmental Science
    Plant & cell physiology
  • 2020
The current understanding of gibberellin metabolism and its regulation is described, highlighting the more recent advances in this field.

OF GIBBERELLIN SIGNALING

This review covers recent advances in gibberellins (GA) signaling, pathway from GA metabolism to the downstream responses and pay special attention to the regulatory molecular mechanisms.

Gibberellins and the Red Pigments Bikaverin and Fusarubin

In this review, the distribution, toxicity, biosynthesis, and regulation of three secondary metabolites, the gibberellic acids as well as the two groups of red pigments, bikaverins and fusarubins, are discussed in detail with the focus on the plant-pathogenic ascomycete F. fujikuroi.

Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation.

Results from a wide range of studies indicate that GAs are required at different stages of nodulation, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation.

Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110

It is found that expression of the operon was consistently upregulated during early-stage nodulation across different rhizobia in bacteria, indicating a possible biological role of bacterial gibberellin.

Gibberellin biosynthesis by bacteria and its effect on the rhizobia-legume symbiosis

It appears that rhizobia produce GA in order to manipulate their host during symbiosis, specifically by increasing the size of the nodules in which they reside, thereby increasing the number of bacteria within the nodule that can be released into the soil.

The gibberellin precursor GA12 acts as a long-distance growth signal in Arabidopsis

The existence of long-range transport of endogenous GA12 in plants that may have implications for the control of developmental phase transitions and the adaptation to adverse environments is revealed.

Elucidation of gibberellin biosynthesis in bacteria reveals convergent evolution.

It is demonstrated that this operon encodes the enzymes necessary to produce GA9, thereby elucidating bacterial GA biosynthesis and revealing a central biochemical logic that is followed in all three convergently evolved GA biosynthetic pathways.

Investigating the interplay between gibberellin signaling and cell cycle control

The evidence suggests that GAI and RGA regulate the G1 to S phase of the plant cell cycle and are functionally different, and the GAI-RBR association might be under the control of CDK activity.

CYP72A enzymes catalyse 13-hydrolyzation of gibberellins

A new subfamily of cytochrome P450 enzymes has been identified to be responsible for gibberelin deactivation in Brassicaceae, and recombinant CYP72A9 protein catalysed the conversion of 13-H GAs to the corresponding 13-OH GAs.
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