Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Plants and Fungi: A Case of Convergent Evolution?

@article{Hedden2001GibberellinBI,
  title={Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Plants and Fungi: A Case of Convergent Evolution?
},
  author={Peter Hedden and Andrew L Phillips and María Cecilia Rojas and Esther Carrera and Bettina Tudzynski},
  journal={Journal of Plant Growth Regulation},
  year={2001},
  volume={20},
  pages={319-331}
}
As well as being phytohormones, gibberellins (GAs) are present in some fungi and bacteria. Indeed, GAs were first discovered in the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, from which gibberellic acid (GA3) and other GAs are produced commercially. Although higher plants and the fungus produce structurally identical GAs, there are important differences in the pathways and enzymes involved. This has become particularly apparent with the identification of almost all of the genes for GA-biosynthesis in… 
Biochemical and Molecular Analyses of Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Fungi
  • H. Kawaide
  • Biology, Medicine
    Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • 2006
The plant hormone, gibberellin (GA), regulates plant growth and development. It was first isolated as a superelongation-promoting diterpenoid from the fungus, Gibberella fujikuroi. G. fujikuroi uses
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  • B. Tudzynski
  • Biology, Medicine
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
  • 2004
TLDR
This review concentrates mainly on the fungal biosynthetic pathway, the genes and enzymes involved, the regulation network, the biotechnological relevance of recent studies, and on evolutionary aspects of GA biosynthesis genes.
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TLDR
The current evidence regarding a common pathway for GA synthesis in fungi, bacteria and plant is summarized from the genes depicted as part of the GA production cluster to the enzymes responsible for the catalytic transformations and the biosynthetical routes involved.
Gibberellin biosynthesis and its regulation.
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The present review discusses the current state of knowledge on GA metabolism with particular emphasis on regulation, including the complex mechanisms for the maintenance of GA homoeostasis.
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The current understanding of the GA biosynthesis pathway is summarized, specifically the genes and enzymes involved as well as gene regulation and localization in the genomes of different fungi and compare it with that in higher and lower plants and bacteria.
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This work shows that some rhizobia that contain the GA operon also possess an additional CYP (CYP115) that acts as a GA 3-oxidase to produce bioactive GA4 from GA9, which provides a more complete scheme for biosynthesis of bioactive GAs in bacteria.
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It is found that expression of the operon was consistently upregulated during early-stage nodulation across different rhizobia in bacteria, indicating a possible biological role of bacterial gibberellin.
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Estimation of the des complementary DNA in Escherichia coli shows that DES has the characteristics of a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, which has the potential to enable substantial growth increases, with practical implications, for example, in biomass production.
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The gibberellins (GAs) are an important class of plant growth regulators that are active in many aspects of plant growth and development. GAs are synthesized by a complex pathway involving three
The biosynthesis of gibberellic acids by the transformants of orchid-associated Fusarium oxysporum
TLDR
Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed not only the integration of the entire gene cluster into the genome but also the active expression of the seven GA biosynthetic genes under nitrogen-limiting conditions, showing that the regulatory network for expression of GA genes is fully active in the F. fujikuroi GA gene cluster.
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