Bird Predation On Spiders: Ecological Mechanisms And Evolutionary Consequences
- Environmental Science
The present evidence showed that bird predation on spiders in several contrasting forest ecosystems is strong, however, there are many hypotheses regarding birdpredation on spider populations that should be examined in future field experiments.
Selection on females can create ‘larger males’
- BiologyProceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
It is concluded that it is incorrect to assume sexual dimorphism results from a single selective factor, such as directional sexual selection on increased male size, and should be tested on a case–by–case basis using a phylogenetic approach.
Evolution and maintenance of sexual size dimorphism: aligning phylogenetic and experimental evidence
- BiologyFront. Ecol. Evol.
While sexual size dimorphism in spiders most likely originates and is maintained by fecundity selection on females, it is unclear what selection pressures prevent males from becoming as large as females, and this integrated approach highlights the dangers of inferring evolutionary significance from experimental studies that isolate the effects of single selection pressures.
The systematics and biology of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae : Nephilidae) in the Australasian region
Five species of the nephilid genus Nephila Leach are found in the Australasian region, which for the purposes of this study was defined as Australia and its dependencies, New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Niue, New Zealand and other parts of the south-west Pacific region.
Sexual dimorphism and the differential mortality model: is behaviour related to survival?
The data demonstrate that differences in male and female behaviour are not predictive of differences in mortality and suggest that understanding sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in spiders will require evaluation of historical constraints as well as how size currently influences fitness in each sex.
A new genus of Australian orb-weaving spider with extreme sexual size dimorphism (Araneae, Araneidae)
- BiologyZoosystematics and Evolution
The new Australian orb-weaving spider genus Mangrovia in the family Araneidae Clerck, 1757 is described. It is characterised by extreme sexual size-dimorphism (eSSD) with females (total length 8–10…
Mating and cannibalism dynamics of the fishing spider Dolomedes scriptus Hentz, 1845 (Araneae: Pisauridae)
- BiologyThe Journal of Arachnology
The results suggest a strong role of female aggression in D. scriptus mating system dynamics, and suggest the evolution of such an extreme mating system is challenged by the absence of information for close relatives.
Rapid divergence in vegetative morphology of a wind-pollinated plant between populations at contrasting densities
- Environmental Science, BiologybioRxiv
It is demonstrated that a simple change in plant density can induce rapid, age-dependent and sex-specific evolution in the ontogeny of vegetative organs, and illustrates the power of experimental evolution for investigating plant trait evolution.
Beyond size: sexual dimorphisms in pholcid spiders
This review provides a rough and conservative estimate of the number of independent origins of sexual dimorphisms in Pholcidae, based on published morphological and molecular phylogenies and character mapping; more than 120 independent origins are hypothesized.
Golden orb-weaving spider (Trichonephila clavipes) silk genes with sex-biased expression and atypical architectures
It is shown that two SpL genes are expressed in silk glands, with one gene highly evolutionarily conserved across species, providing evidence that particular spidroin genes are important to silk production.
SHOWING 1-10 OF 10 REFERENCES
Methods for Computing Wagner Trees
The concept of a Wagner Network is formalized and a number of algorithms for calculating such networks are discussed and the rationale for the methods described is discussed.
Sexual dimorphism in leg length among orb‐weaving spiders: a possible role for sexual cannibalism
It is argued that the relationship between sexual size dimorphism and relative male leg length within the Araneinae may be the result of selection imposed by sexual cannibalism by females.
Male Body Size and Fitness in the Web‐building Spider Nephila clavipes
A study is presented focussing on the costs and benefits of male size in Nephila clavipes, with a focus on the males of small male size.
Reconstructing ancestral character states under Wagner parsimony
- Computer Science
The ecology and behavior of Nephila maculata : a supplement
Analysis of data on the web-site constancy of Nephila maculata shows that this spider may, as an adult, spend considerable periods at one site, possibly as an antipredator device, and observations show that birds may learn to avoid contact with large araneid webs.
SELECTION ON FECUNDITY AND VARIATION IN THE DEGREE OF SEXUAL SIZE DIMORPHISM AMONG SPIDER SPECIES (CLASS ARANEAE)
- Biology, Environmental ScienceEvolution; international journal of organic evolution
Spiders were chosen because they display great interspecific variation in the degree of sexual size dimorphism, yet the mechanisms producing size variation are simple and well understood, and there may be some fundamental differences between vertebrates and invertebrates in the forces selecting for sexual sizeDimorphism.
Sexual dimorphism and distorted sex ratios in spiders
This work presents a new model in which high mortality of searching mature males reduces the adult sex ratio (males: females), relaxing male–male competition and reducing the importance of male body size to favour dwarfing by early maturation provides a mechanism that buffers skews inAdult sex ratio.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex
Part II. Sexual Selection (continued): 12. Secondary sexual characters of fishes, amphibians and reptiles 13. Secondary sexual characters of birds 14. Birds (continued) 15. Birds (continued) 16.…
Phylogenies and the Comparative Method
- BiologyThe American Naturalist
A method of correcting for the phylogeny has been proposed, which specifies a set of contrasts among species, contrasts that are statistically independent and can be used in regression or correlation studies.
Web-construction Behaviour in Australian Phonognatha and the Phylogeny of Nephiline and Tetragnathid Spiders (Araneae : Tetragnathidae)
New data from spinneret silk gland spigots, combined with other morphological and behavioural characters, provide the first concrete evidence that 'metine' genera, occasionally regarded as either a distinct family or subfamily, are a paraphyletic assemblage.