Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth’s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa

@article{Stein2007GiantCT,
  title={Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth’s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa},
  author={William Stein and Frank Mannolini and Linda Vanaller Hernick and Ed Landing and Christopher M. Berry},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2007},
  volume={446},
  pages={904-907}
}
The evolution of trees of modern size growing together in forests fundamentally changed terrestrial ecosystems. The oldest trees are often thought to be of latest Devonian age (about 380–360 Myr old) as indicated by the widespread occurrence of Archaeopteris (Progymnospermopsida). Late Middle Devonian fossil tree stumps, rooted and still in life position, discovered in the 1870s from Gilboa, New York, and later named Eospermatopteris, are widely cited as evidence of the Earth’s ‘oldest forest… 
The Evolution of Angiosperm Trees: From Palaeobotany to Genomics
TLDR
Genomic resources for angiosperm trees are developing rapidly and this, coupled with the huge variation in woody habit, make angiosperms a highly promising comparative system for understanding wood evolution at the molecular level.
Reconstruction and Growth of the Early Tree Calamophyton (Pseudosporochnales, Cladoxylopsida) Based on Exceptionally Complete Specimens from Lindlar, Germany (Mid-Devonian): Organic Connection of Calamophyton Branches and Duisbergia Trunks
TLDR
The suite of specimens suggests that the upward-growing primary body of the trunk increased in diameter, reaching a mature diameter ∼1–2 m from the ground, which is not consistent with existing models of pseudosporochnalean growth.
Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China
TLDR
This work demonstrates that trunk expansion is associated with a cylindrical zone of diffuse secondary growth within ground and cortical parenchyma and with production of a large amount of wood containing both rays and growth increments concentrically around individual xylem strands by normal cambia.
Back to the Beginnings: The Silurian-Devonian as a Time of Major Innovation in Plants and Their Communities
Massive changes in terrestrial paleoecology occurred during the Devonian. This period saw the evolution of both seed plants (e.g., Elkinsia and Moresnetia), fully laminate∗ leaves and wood. Wood
A new phylogeny of the cladoxylopsid plexus: contribution of an early cladoxylopsid from the Lower Devonian (Emsian) of Quebec.
TLDR
The sequence of character change recovered by the phylogenetic analysis supports a transition from actinostelic protosteles to dissected steles, associated with an increase in xylem rib number and medullation generating a central parenchymatous area.
Surprisingly complex community discovered in the mid-Devonian fossil forest at Gilboa
TLDR
A 1,200 m2 map showing numerous Eospermatopteris root systems in life position within a mixed-age stand of trees is described, describing the overall habit for these surprisingly large aneurophytaleans, the earliest fossil group having wood produced by a bifacial vascular cambium.
The land plant cover in the Devonian: a reassessment of the evolution of the tree habit
Abstract This paper reviews information on the Devonian trees that evolved in the euphyllophyte clade with special focus on the Middle Devonian Pseudosporochnales. The morphology of
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES
Archaeopteris is the earliest known modern tree
TLDR
This work describes the largest group of anatomically preserved Archaeopteris remains ever found, from the Famennian marine beds of south-eastern Morocco, and provides the first evidence that, in terms of development and branching strategies, these 370-million-year-old plants were the earliest known modern trees.
A Novel Late Devonian (Frasnian) Woody Cladoxylopsid from China
TLDR
Polypetalophyton represents the first evidence of Sphenopteridium‐type foliage occurring within Cladoxylopsids and demonstrates that this kind of foliage has evolved independently within at least three distinct plant clades: Zygopterids, Clad oxylopsid, and seed plants.
On new Tree Ferns and other Fossils from the Devonian
  • J. W. Dawson
  • Geology, Environmental Science
    Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London
  • 1871
Of the numerous ferns now known in the Middle and Upper Devonian of North America, a great number are small and delicate species, which were probably herbaceous; but there are other species which may
Tree fern growth strategy in the Late Devonian cladoxylopsid species Pietzschia levis from the study of its stem and root system.
Portions of stems from five new anatomically preserved specimens of Pietzschia levis from a new Late Devonian plant locality of eastern Tafilalt, Anti-Atlas (Morocco), were analyzed to complete the
Reconstructing the Architecture and Growth Habit of Pietzschia levis sp. nov. (Cladoxylopsida) from the Late Devonian of Southeastern Morocco
TLDR
Anatomical characters that are unique to the new species are extensive aerenchymatous tissues occurring within the stem and bases of lateral organs; the small amount of vascular tissues; and the large number of peripheral xylem plates involved in emission of traces that indicate ecological preferences of this new species for wetland habitats.
A new species of Tetraxylopteris (Aneurophytales) from the Devonian of Venezuela
TLDR
As the first definitive documentation of Tetraxylopteris in Gondwana, this study indicates aneurophytalean progymnosperms were more widespread than formerly understood and support the concept of a largely uniform worldwide vegetation.
The Architecture of Pseudosporochnus nodosus Leclercq et Banks: A Middle Devonian Cladoxylopsid from Belgium
TLDR
A sturdy trunk bearing densely and acutely inserted lateral branches capable of abscission at their base is reconstructed for Pseudosporochnus with an architectural model that applies to other mainly Middle Devonian plants that are placed in Pseudosporachnales, Calamophyton Kräusel et Weyland, Lorophyton Fairon‐Demaret et Li, and Wattieza Stockmans.
A Reinvestigation of the Cladoxylopsid Pseudosporochnus nodosus Leclercq Et Banks from the Middle Devonian of Goe, Belgium
TLDR
Investigation of the morphology of the cladoxylopsid Pseudosporochnus nodosus from the Middle Devonian of Goé, Belgium, has established novel results, which emphasize the primitive and variable nature of branching in this plant.
...
1
2
3
...