Giant Pulses from PSR B1937+21 with Widths ≤ 15 Nanoseconds and Tb ⩾ 5 × 1039 K, the Highest Brightness Temperature Observed in the Universe

@article{Soglasnov2004GiantPF,
  title={Giant Pulses from PSR B1937+21 with Widths ≤ 15 Nanoseconds and Tb ⩾ 5 × 1039 K, the Highest Brightness Temperature Observed in the Universe},
  author={Vladimir A. Soglasnov and Mikhail V. Popov and Norbert Bartel and Wayne H. Cannon and A. Yu. Novikov and Vladislav I. Kondratiev and Valery I. Altunin},
  journal={The Astrophysical Journal},
  year={2004},
  volume={616},
  pages={439 - 451}
}
Giant radio pulses of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21 were recorded with the S2 VLBI system at 1.65 GHz with NASA/JPL's 70 m radio telescope at Tidbinbilla, Australia. These pulses have been observed as strong as 65,000 Jy with widths ≤15 ns, corresponding to a brightness temperature of Tb ≥ 5 × 1039 K, the highest observed in the universe. The vast majority of these pulses occur in 5.8 and 8.2 μs windows at the very trailing edges of the regular main pulse and interpulse profiles, respectively… 

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