Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

  title={Giant Cell Tumor of Bone},
  author={William M. Mendenhall and Robert A. Zlotecki and Mark T Scarborough and C Parker Gibbs and Nancy Price Mendenhall},
  journal={American Journal of Clinical Oncology},
Objective:To discuss the treatment and outcomes for giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone. Materials and Methods:Review of the pertinent literature. Results:GCT is a rare benign bone lesion most often found in the extremities of women in the third and fourth decades of life. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment and usually consists of intralesional curettage; local control rates range from 80% to 90% after this procedure. Patients with extensive, recurrent, and/or biologically more aggressive tumors… 
Radiotherapy for giant cell tumors of the bone: a safe and effective treatment modality.
RT is an easy, safe and effective method for the treatment of GCTB and may provide an attractive alternative to mutilating surgery.
Giant cell tumors of the sacrum treated with intralesional resection and radiotherapy: a case series and review of the literature
RT is proposed to be considered as a standard coadjuvant treatment after intralesional surgery for sacral GCT, where efficient local control without severe toxicity is advisable.
Giant cell tumor of bone: Unusual features of a rare tumor
This retrospective study included review of the medical records of patients with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of giant cell tumor of bone, finding that long bones were more affected, especially around the knee, and intralesional curettage was the most frequently used treatment.
Giant cell tumor of bone: review, mimics, and new developments in treatment.
Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets the osteoclastic activity of GCT, has produced 90% tumor necrosis in early studies, results indicative of promise as a potential adjuvant therapy.
Giant cell tumors of the skull: a series of 18 cases and review of the literature
It is concluded that complete tumor resection is the optimal goal in treating this disease and adjuvant RT should be given once tumor residual is inevitable.
Preoperative denosumab treatment with curettage may be a risk factor for recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone
The findings revealed the use of denosumab in GCTB, prior to curettage, to possibly increase the risk of local recurrence, and this finding might provide information for beneficial treatment of G CTB.
Unresectable Clival Giant Cell Tumor, Tumor Control With Denosumab After Relapse: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature
The present case describes a 14-year-old girl with a clival GCT who underwent long-term therapy with denosumab after local relapse and achieved a local control of the disease.
The multidisciplinary management of giant cell tumor of bone
Current evidence has demonstrated denosumab to be a promising agent in the treatment of unresectable or metastatic disease and Serial arterial embolization can be effective in some cases.
Case Report: Prolonged Disease Stability in Giant Cell Tumor of the Bone in the Cervical Spine Treated with Denosumab
This case demonstrates the efficacy of Denosumab in stabilizing the progression of giant cell tumor of bone but also highlights the need for further investigation into cumulative dose-related side effects and long term treatment planning as patients currently have no other treatment options once stability is achieved.
Giant Cell Tumor of the Sacrum: Series of 19 Patients and Review of the Literature.
Although an acceptable surgical outcome was observed in this cohort, the problem of local recurrence still warrants further investigations for better local control of the tumor.


Results of giant cell tumor of bone treated with intralesional excision.
This long-term followup study on patients treated with intralesional excision and methacrylate showed a low recurrence rate similar to those cited in the literature, the complication rate was low and the function results were excellent.
Recurrence of curetted and bone-grafted giant-cell tumours with and without adjuvant phenol therapy.
It is suggested that local recurrence rate of giant-cell tumours located in long bones treated with or without phenol is similar, andequate removal seems to be a more important predictive factor for the outcome of surgery than the use of phenol as an adjuvant therapy.
Giant-cell tumors of bone: an analysis of 87 cases
Overall recurrence was 12 and complication rate after wide excision was higher than that after curettage, and functional outcome was evaluated using the Enneking scoring system.
Customized Treatment Algorithm for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Report of a Series
Intralesional curettage and high-speed burr resection, when supplemented with the adjuvant therapies as described, is adequate for the majority of patients with giant cell tumor of bone.
Giant-cell tumour of bone. The long-term results of treatment by curettage and bone graft.
Treatment with an aqueous solution of zinc chloride and reconstructive bone grafting after curettage gives good results and is indicated to give good results in giant-cell tumour of bone.
Mimics on radiography of giant cell tumor of bone.
Giant cell tumor of bone tends to affect patients more than 20 years old, with the peak incidence occurring during the third decade of life, and patients usually present with pain.
Proteases and interleukin-6 gene analysis in 92 giant cell tumors of bone.
  • G. GamberiM. Benassi P. Picci
  • Medicine, Biology
    Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • 2004
Results suggest a possible association of these factors with a higher biological aggressiveness of GCT, and it appears that increased expression of the IL-6, u-PA, U-PAR and PAI1 proteins might not depend on mutation of the corresponding genes.
Bisphosphonates Induce Apoptosis of Stromal Tumor Cells in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone
The results showed that pamidronate significantly induced apoptosis in both osteoclast-like giant cells and stromal tumor cells, in vivo, and suggest that these drugs may be considered as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT.
Whole-Lung Radiotherapy for Giant Cell Tumors of Bone with Pulmonary Metastases
Recommend whole lung radiotherapy to 16 Gy with an additional boost to 35 to 45 Gy to gross disease as an option for patients with pulmonary metastases who are poor surgical candidates, who refuse thoracic surgery, whose disease is technically unresectable, or whose disease recurs or progresses after surgery or chemotherapy.
Estrogen receptor expression in giant cell tumors of the bone.
Results strongly support that GCTs of the bone express functional ERs.