Ghrelin is present in pancreatic α-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion

@article{Date2002GhrelinIP,
  title={Ghrelin is present in pancreatic $\alpha$-cells of humans and rats and stimulates insulin secretion},
  author={Yukari Date and Masamitsu Nakazato and Suzuko Hashiguchi and Katsuya Dezaki and Muhtashan S. Mondal and Hiroshi Hosoda and Masayasu Kojima and Kenji Kangawa and Terukatsu Arima and Hisayuki Matsuo and Toshihiko Yada and Shigeru Matsukura},
  journal={Diabetes},
  year={2002},
  volume={51},
  pages={124-129}
}
Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone–releasing peptide isolated from human and rat stomach, is a 28–amino acid peptide with a posttranslational acylation modification that is indispensable for stimulating growth hormone secretion by increasing intracellular Ca 2+ concentration. It also functions in the regulation of feeding behavior, energy metabolism, and gastric acid secretion and motility. Using two different antibodies against the NH 2 - and COOH-terminal regions of ghrelin, we studied its… 

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Ghrelin is a physiological regulator of insulin release in pancreatic islets and glucose homeostasis.
DISTRIBUTION OF GHRELIN IN PANCREATIC ISLET CELLS OF NORMAL AND DIABETIC RATS AND ITS EFFECT ON DIABETES MELLITUS
TLDR
It is demonstrated that ghrelin co-localizes with insulin as well as glucagon in the pancreatic islet cells and that the pattern of gh Relin distribution is shown to alter after the onset of diabetes.
Ghrelin in rat pancreatic islets decreases islet blood flow.
TLDR
The results indicate a novel role for endogenous ghrelin acting directly or indirectly as a local vasoconstrictor in the islets during fasting, thereby restricting the insulin response to hyperglycemia and shows this physiological mechanism to restrict insulin delivery from the islet by acting on the vasculature is shown.
Ghrelin directly stimulates glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha-cells.
TLDR
Ghrelin's regulation of blood glucose involves direct stimulation of glucagon secretion from α-cells and introduces the ghrelin-glucagon axis as an important mechanism controlling glycemia under fasting conditions.
Ghrelin’s Novel Signaling in Islet β-Cells to Inhibit Insulin Secretion and Its Blockade As a Promising Strategy to Treat Type 2 Diabetes
Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid peptide, was isolated from the stomach and circulating ghrelin is produced predominantly in the oxyntic mucosa of stomach. In addition to its unique role in
Exogenous Ghrelin Increases Plasma Insulin Level in Diabetic Rats †
TLDR
The results show that the administration of ghrelin increases the number of insulin-secreting beta cells and serum insulin level in both normal and diabetic rats, and co-localizes with insulin in the secretory granules of pancreaticBeta cells and enhances insulin production.
Ghrelin Is Expressed in a Novel Endocrine Cell Type in Developing Rat Islets and Inhibits Insulin Secretion from INS-1 (832/13) Cells
TLDR
Ghrelin is expressed in a novel developmentally regulated endocrine islet cell type in the rat pancreas and that ghrelin inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via a direct effect on the β-cell.
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Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing acylated peptide, is synthesized in a distinct endocrine cell type in the gastrointestinal tracts of rats and humans.
TLDR
Ghrelin probably functions not only in the control of GH secretion, but also in the regulation of diverse processes of the digestive system, and its findings provide clues to additional physiological functions of this novel gastrointestinal hormone.
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TLDR
It is reported that ghrelin mRNA expression in the gastric fundus was increased, but that gh Relin peptide content decreased after a 48-h fast, suggesting that this novel gastrointestinal hormone plays a role in the regulation of energy balance.
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TLDR
Ghrelin neuron is present in the arcuate nucleus of rat hypothalamus, but its central effect on growth hormone (GH) release has yet to be clarified, and the plasma GH concentration and GH mRNA level in the pituitary in response to central administration of ghrelin is determined.
Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents
TLDR
It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
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TLDR
The results suggest that ghrelin participates in the central regulation of gastric acid secretion by activating the vagus system, and Intracerebroventricular administration increases food intake and body weight.
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TLDR
It is shown that ghrelin is involved in the hypothalamic regulation of energy homeostasis and probably has a function in growth regulation by stimulating feeding and release of growth hormone.
Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue.
TLDR
While gh Relin activates growth-hormone secretagogue (GHS) receptor-expressing cells, the nonmodified des-n-octanyl form of ghrelin, designated as des-acyl ghrel in, does not.
Ghrelin stimulates gastric acid secretion and motility in rats.
TLDR
Intravenous administrations of rat ghrelin at 0.8 to 20 microgram/kg dose-dependently increased not only gastric acid secretion measured by a lumen-perfused method, but also gastric motility measured byA miniature balloon method suggest that gh Relin may play a physiological role in the vagal control of gastric function in rats.
The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion.
TLDR
It is found that both intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin in freely feeding rats stimulated food intake and plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration increased following both i.c.v. and i.p. administration.
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