Ghrelin—a hormone with multiple functions

@article{Korbonits2004GhrelinaHW,
  title={Ghrelin—a hormone with multiple functions},
  author={M{\'a}rta Korbonits and Anthony Peter Goldstone and Maria Gueorguiev and Ashley B Grossman},
  journal={Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology},
  year={2004},
  volume={25},
  pages={27-68}
}
Ghrelin: a new peptide regulating growth hormone release and food intake.
Structure and Physiological Actions of Ghrelin
TLDR
This review focuses on presenting the current understanding of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogue receptor biology, as well as the main physiological effects of gh Relin.
Ghrelin: A Molecular Target for Weight Regulation, Glucose and Lipid Metabolism
TLDR
Interestingly, some metabolic actions of ghrelin are independent of its acylation, which is necessary for it to bind and activate the GHS-R1a, supporting the hypothesis of the existence of several ghrelIn receptor subtypes involved in the control of metabolic functions and pancreatic cell survival.
[Ghrelin: a gastric hormone at the crossroad between growth and appetite regulation].
Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone synthesized within the gastrointestinal tract. Initially identified as the endogenous ligand of the GHS-R1a (Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor 1a),
A Multi-faceted, Fat-defending Peptide Hormone: Ghrelin
TLDR
Ghrelin is an important component of an integrated regulatory system of growth and metabolism acting via the vagus nerve and is implicated in a variety of altered energy states as obesity, eating disorders, neoplasia and cachexia.
Ghrelin: a metabolic signal affecting the reproductive system.
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References

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The tissue distribution of the mRNA of ghrelin and subtypes of its receptor, GHS-R, in humans.
TLDR
The data suggest that ghrelin might have widespread physiological effects via different, partly unidentified, subtypes of the GHS-R in endocrine and non-endocrine tissues.
The expression of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor ligand ghrelin in normal and abnormal human pituitary and other neuroendocrine tumors.
TLDR
It is suggested that the presence of ghrelin mRNA and peptide in the pituitary implies that the locally synthesized hormone may have an autocrine/paracrine modulatory effect on pituitsary hormone release.
Expression of ghrelin and of the GH secretagogue receptor by pancreatic islet cells and related endocrine tumors.
TLDR
Findings demonstrate that ghrelin production is not restricted to the stomach but is also present in pancreatic beta-cells and endocrine tumors (regardless of the type of pancreatic hormone produced, if any).
Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents
TLDR
It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
Immunolocalization of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in the cyclic human ovary.
TLDR
The results are the first to demonstrate that ghrelin and its functional type 1a receptor are expressed in the cyclic human ovary with distinct patterns of cellular location.
Expression of ghrelin and its functional receptor, the type 1a growth hormone secretagogue receptor, in normal human testis and testicular tumors.
TLDR
The expression of ghrelin and its functional receptor in human and rat testis, with roughly similar patterns of cellular distribution, is highly suggestive of a conserved role for this newly discovered molecule in the regulation of mammalian testicular function.
Endocrine activities of ghrelin, a natural growth hormone secretagogue (GHS), in humans: comparison and interactions with hexarelin, a nonnatural peptidyl GHS, and GH-releasing hormone.
TLDR
Ghrelin, a natural ligand of GHS-receptor, exerts a strong stimulatory effect on GH secretion in humans, releasing more GH than GHRH and even more than a nonnatural GHS such as HEX, which possesses strong GH-releasing activity but also significantly stimulates PRL, ACTH, and cortisol secretion.
Inhibitory effect of ghrelin on insulin and pancreatic somatostatin secretion.
TLDR
Findings support the proposal that the inhibitory effect of ghrelin on insulin release constitutes a tonic regulation of the B-cell, contributing to restrain its secretory activity in the state of food deprivation.
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