Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor

@article{Kojima2001GhrelinDO,
  title={Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor},
  author={Masayasu Kojima and Hiroshi Hosoda and Hisayuki Matsuo and Kenji Kangawa},
  journal={Trends in Endocrinology \& Metabolism},
  year={2001},
  volume={12},
  pages={118-122}
}
Ghrelin: structure and function.
TLDR
The discovery of ghrelin indicates that the release of GH from the pituitary might be regulated not only by hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone, but also by gh Relin derived from the stomach, which plays important roles for maintaining GH release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates.
Natural and Synthetic Growth Hormone Secretagogues
TLDR
The discovery of Ghrelin and the characterization of these GH-independent biological activities has widened the knowledge of some critical aspects of neuroendocrinology and suggests possible roles for GHSs and ghrelin in the treatment of pathophysiological conditions, including those unrelated to disorders of GH secretion.
Ghrelin and synthetic GH secretagogues.
TLDR
Ghrelin mediates the neuroendocrine and metabolic response to starvation, and GHS analogues acting as agonists or antagonists on appetite could represent a new drug intervention for eating disorders.
Ghrelin: much more than a natural growth hormone secretagogue.
TLDR
The theoretic possibility that GHS analogues acting as agonists or antagonists could become candidate drugs for the treatment of pathophysiologic conditions in internal medicine totally unrelated to disorders of GH secretion is faced.
Novel ghrelin analogs with improved affinity for the GH secretagogue receptor stimulate GH and prolactin release from human pituitary cells.
TLDR
It is demonstrated for the first time that ghrelin analogs with enhanced affinity for the GHS receptor are potent stimulators of GH secretion from human pituitary cells, and thus may possess potential clinical therapeutic benefits.
Ghrelin and anterior pituitary function.
TLDR
Ghrelin and synthetic GHS possess an acute stimulatory effect on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans, which is, at least, similar to that of the opioid antagonist naloxone, arginine vasopressin and even corticotropin-releasing hormone.
The physiology and potential clinical applications of ghrelin, a novel peptide hormone.
TLDR
Data is presented on ghrelin structure, expression, and function, with emphasis placed on human studies, highlighting areas that require future investigation and providing speculation about potential clinical applications of gh Relin agonists or antagonists.
The GH‐releasing effect of ghrelin, a natural GH secretagogue, is only blunted by the infusion of exogenous somatostatin in humans
TLDR
Ghrelin strongly stimulates GH secretion in both animals and humans, showing a synergistic effect with GH‐releasing hormone (GHRH) but no interaction with synthetic GHS.
Growth Hormone, Leptin and Ghrelin
TLDR
It is indicated that ghrelin is able to inhibit PRL secretion in male and female rats, likely through an extrapituitary primary site of action that is independent of nitric oxide, dopamine, and serotonin systems.
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References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach
TLDR
The occurrence of ghrelin in both rat and human indicates that GH release from the pituitary may be regulated not only by hypothalamic GHRH, but also by ghrelIn, a peptide specifically releases GH both in vivo and in vitro.
Growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP)
  • C. Bowers
  • Biology
    Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS
  • 1998
TLDR
Evidence by a number of investigators is gradually accumulating to support that GHRP reflects the GH-releasing action of a new natural hypothalamic hormone yet to be isolated and identified.
Central effects of a novel acylated peptide, ghrelin, on growth hormone release in rats.
TLDR
Ghrelin neuron is present in the arcuate nucleus of rat hypothalamus, but its central effect on growth hormone (GH) release has yet to be clarified, and the plasma GH concentration and GH mRNA level in the pituitary in response to central administration of ghrelin is determined.
Purification and Characterization of Rat des-Gln14-Ghrelin, a Second Endogenous Ligand for the Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor*
TLDR
The purification of the second endogenous ligand for GHS-R from rat stomach is reported, named des-Gln14-ghrelin, whose sequence is identical to ghrelin except for one glutamine, and this is the first example of a novel mechanism that produces peptide multiplicity.
Molecular analysis of rat pituitary and hypothalamic growth hormone secretagogue receptors.
TLDR
The recent cloning of the GHS-R from human and swine pituitary gland identifies yet a third G protein-coupled receptor (GPC-R) involved in the control of GH release and further supports the existence of an undiscovered hormone that may activate this receptor.
Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents
TLDR
It is proposed that ghrelin, in addition to its role in regulating GH secretion, signals the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary, suggesting an involvement in regulation of energy balance.
A Receptor in Pituitary and Hypothalamus That Functions in Growth Hormone Release
TLDR
A heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPC-R) of the pituitary and arcuate ventro-medial and infundibular hypothalamus of swine and humans was cloned and was shown to be the target of the GHSs.
Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone release in humans.
TLDR
This is the first study showing evidence that ghrelin strongly stimulates GH release in humans, and the lowest dose resulted in only minimum peak values of these hormones.
The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion.
TLDR
It is found that both intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin in freely feeding rats stimulated food intake and plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration increased following both i.c.v. and i.p. administration.
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