Getting western: biogeographical analysis of morphological variation, mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear markers reveals cryptic species and hybrid zones in the Junonia butterflies of the American southwest and Mexico

  title={Getting western: biogeographical analysis of morphological variation, mitochondrial haplotypes and nuclear markers reveals cryptic species and hybrid zones in the Junonia butterflies of the American southwest and Mexico},
  author={Melanie M. L. Lalonde and Jeffrey M. Marcus},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
The American southwest and northern Mexico has a great degree of endemic diversity compared with the rest of North America. The Pleistocene glaciations and the dispersal of species from glacial refuges in this region have been important engines for the production of biodiversity in the region. The New World Junonia are a recent radiation of butterflies that are thought to have spent time in these refuges during periods of glacial advancement. We have reconstructed the plausible movements and… 

A global molecular phylogeny yields insights into the dispersal and invasion history of Junonia, a butterfly genus with remarkable dispersal abilities

This is, to the authors' knowledge, the most comprehensive Junonia phylogeny to date, using full mitogenomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA repeats from 40 of 47 described species, suggesting a trans-Pacific route into the New World.

Mitochondrial DNA barcodes provide insight into the phylogeography and subspecies controversy in the widespread Neotropical white peacock butterfly, Anartia jatrophae (Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae)

Molecular analyses indicated the presence of at least four distinct genetic lineages that are distinct at the subspecies level in the common and wide-ranging Neotropical white peacock butterfly, namely A. j.

The importance of DNA barcode choice in biogeographic analyses - a case study on marine midges of the genus Clunio.

The results suggest that the design and use of DNA barcodes in biogeographic studies must be carefully evaluated for each investigated species.

Back to the Future: Updates on the Invasion History of Junonia Butterflies in Florida and the Mystery of Chokoloskee

Populations of J. zonalis in the Florida Keys and Cuba have maintained nearly constant mitochondrial haplotype group A frequencies over many decades and may be more stable than those on the Florida mainland.

Speciation in North American Junonia from a genomic perspective

A general approach exemplified by American butterflies from the genus Junonia Hübner notorious for the variety of similar phenotypes, ease of hybridization, and the lack of consensus about their classification is proposed, and genomic analysis suggests that J. nigrosuffusa may be a hybrid species formed by the ancestors of J. coenia.

Genomics of a complete butterfly continent

All 845 species of butterflies recorded from North America north of Mexico are sequence, revealing the pattern of diversification and adaptation occurring in this phylogenetic lineage as it has spread over the continent, which cannot be seen on a sample of selected species.

How old can we go? Evaluating the age limit for effective DNA recovery from historical insect specimens

A robust, high‐throughput, and low‐cost DNA extraction and genotyping protocol for historical insect specimens employing restriction digests of PCR products followed by high sensitivity electrophoresis is presented.

Leopards and giants, tigers and woolly bears: casting a broader net in exploring heparin effects on Lepidoptera wing patterns.

Variation in wing pattern response to heparin found between different species and families in this study warrants further taxonomic widening of exploration of wing pattern formation mechanisms in Lepidoptera.

Pharmacological and surgical experiments on wing pattern development of Lepidoptera, with a focus on the eyespots of saturniid moths

Published data on the effects of the medical drug heparin, known to affect wing pattern development in Lepidoptera, is reviewed and novel experiments using this drug are reported on, discussing the commonalities and differences between these two species.

Emperors, admirals and giants, zebras, tigers and woolly bears: casting a broader net in exploring heparin effects on Lepidoptera wing patterns.

Observations from experiments on a broader range of taxa are reported, including first results from swallowtails, tiger moths and microlepidoptera, demonstrating that there are many similarities and some very significant differences in the ways wing patterns are formed in different Lepidoptera lineages.

Insights into Population Origins of Neotropical Junonia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Nymphalinae) Based on Mitochondrial DNA

Differences found in COI haplotype diversity, present-day , and the timing of population expansions are consistent with the hypothesis that the Mexico population of J. genoveva is the more recently evolved.

Vicariance biogeography in the Pleistocene and speciation in North American wood warblers: a test of Mengel's model.

The phylogeny of the black-throated green warbler complex is reconstructed, implying a mix, wherein some western endemics were budded off an eastern source, as Mengel posits, while others probably resulted from intermontane isolations in the west.

Glacial refugia and modern genetic diversity of 22 western North American tree species

    D. RobertsA. Hamann
    Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2015
This work reconstructs the refugial history of western North American trees since the last glacial maximum using species distribution models, validated against 3571 palaeoecological records and finds that species with strong genetic differentiation into subspecies had widespread and large glacial refugia, whereas species with restricted refugias show no differentiation among populations and little genetic diversity.

A tale of two haplotype groups: evaluating the New World Junonia ring species hypothesis using the distribution of divergent COI haplotypes

Junonia shows a ring‐shaped distribution around the Caribbean, and evidence is consistent with gene flow among forms of Junonia, including those from Mesoamerica, but it is detected no discontinuity in gene flow in Cuba or elsewhere in the Caribbean consistent with genetic isolation in the region of overlap.


The study revealed the presence of two major evolutionary lineages that evolved in separate refuges in southeast France as result of previous fragmentation during the Pleistocene and inferred that range expansions along river valleys in independent corridors to the north led eventually to a secondary contact zone of the major clades around the Geneva Basin.

Ancient hybridization and phenotypic novelty within Lake Malawi's cichlid fish radiation.

Preliminary analyses support the hypothesis that ancient hybridization occurred within the Lake Malawi cichlid radiation, that the event occurred before the radiation of a species group adapted to low-light benthic habitats, and that this group went on to dominate the deep-water regions of LakeMalawi.

The genetic structure of the mountain forest butterfly Erebia euryale unravels the late Pleistocene and postglacial history of the mountain coniferous forest biome in Europe

It is assumed that the most important refugial area for the coniferous mountain forest biome in Europe has been located in southeastern Europe including at least parts of the Carpathians and the Bulgarian mountains.

Genetic Evidence for Reproductive Isolation between Hybridizing Limenitis Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in Southwestern New Mexico

Hybrids between these taxa reported in the literature are not evidence of an introgressive hybrid zone, as found in contact areas between other Limenitis taxa, and this contact area may represent the reproductively isolated portion of a ring species.