Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts’ risk from space radiation

  title={Getting ready for the manned mission to Mars: the astronauts’ risk from space radiation},
  author={Christine E. Hellweg and Christa Baumstark-Khan},
Space programmes are shifting towards planetary exploration and, in particular, towards missions by human beings to the Moon and to Mars. Radiation is considered to be one of the major hazards for personnel in space and has emerged as the most critical issue to be resolved for long-term missions both orbital and interplanetary. The two cosmic sources of radiation that could impact a mission outside the Earth’s magnetic field are solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR… 
Can Astronauts Survive Radiation on Prolonged Space Missions ?
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This review summarizes the specificities of space radiobiology and opens the debate as regards refinements of current radiation protection concepts that will be useful for the better estimation of risks.
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The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars
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The radiation field in low Earth orbit (LEO) and at aviation altitudes differs significantly from the radiation environment on Earth's surface. On ground it is dominated by radioactive decay products
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Radiation and Radiation Disorders
With current technologies, radiation doses associated with exploration and habitation missions to the Moon and Mars may well exceed the limits currently defined for LEO operations. Assessment of the
Ground-based platforms for space radiation research at the Institute of Modern Physics
Highly energized particles deliver ionizing radiation of galactic cosmic rays as well as solar particle events is a severe risk to the crews in long-term space missions. Two ground-based heavy ion
The North-West University’s High Altitude Radiation Monitor programme
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The numerous factors that limit understanding of the risk of space radiation for human crews are highlighted and ways in which these limitations could be addressed for improved understanding and appropriate risk posture regarding future human spaceflight are identified.


Radiation Exposure For Human Mars Exploration
Current estimates for astronaut exposures on a Mars mission are presented and shielding properties of alternative materials are compared with aluminum, and alternative materials for vehicle construction are under investigation to provide lightweight habitat structures with enhanced shielding properties.
Radiation issues for piloted Mars mission.
The entire concept of absorbed dose, quality factor, and dose equivalent as applied to such missions needs to be reexamined, in light of the fact that less than 50% of the nuclei in the body of the astronaut would have been traversed by a single GCR nuclea in the 406-day mission.
Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions.
A review is presented of the present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for the development of the new radiation protection guidelines.
Radiation protection guidelines for space activities.
  • R. Fry
  • Engineering, Medicine
    Acta astronautica
  • 1994
Recent estimates of the risks of radiation-induced cancer have been increased and new guidelines on radiation exposure limits for crew members must be developed, and current career dose limits may have to be reduced.
As the human exploration of space has received new attention in the United States, studies find that exposure to space radiation could adversely impact the mission design. Galactic Cosmic Radiation
Radiation environment due to galactic and solar cosmic rays during manned mission to Mars in the periods between maximum and minimum solar activity cycles.
  • N. Pissarenko
  • Physics, Medicine
    Advances in space research : the official journal of the Committee on Space Research
  • 1994
The radiation environment during a manned mission to Mars in the years between minimum and maximum solar activity when the galactic cosmic ray intensity is considerably reduced, but the solar flare activity has not yet maximized is discussed.
Radiation belt modelling in the framework of space weather effects and forecasting
Abstract The Earth's trapped radiation belts were discovered at the beginning of the space age and were immediately recognised as a considerable hazard to space missions. Consequently, considerable
The high-energy heavy-particle fluences in the orbits of manned space stations.
The results of measuring the particle fluxes in the space station orbits are used to restore the initial particle energy spectra in terms of the models that describe the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their penetration to the Earth's magnetosphere.
Interplanetary crew exposure estimates for galactic cosmic rays.
Initial estimates of interplanetary exposure of astronauts to galactic cosmic rays, during periods of solar minimum activity, are made for a realistic human geometry shielded by various thickness of spacecraft aluminum shielding.
Space weather: The effects on operations in space
Abstract The major solar-terrestrial perturbations that occurred during the 22nd solar cycle have increased our awareness of the effects of space weather. An overview of the causes of some of these