Getting more from pushing less: Negative specific heat and conductivity in nonequilibrium steady states

  title={Getting more from pushing less: Negative specific heat and conductivity in nonequilibrium steady states},
  author={Royce K. P. Zia and Eigil Praestgaard and Ole G. Mouritsen},
  journal={American Journal of Physics},
For students familiar with equilibrium statistical mechanics, the notion of a positive specific heat, being intimately related to the idea of stability, is both intuitively reasonable and mathematically provable. However, for systems in nonequilibrium stationary states, coupled to more than one energy reservoir, a negative specific heat is entirely possible. We present a minimal system that displays this phenomenon. For a system in contact with two thermal baths at different temperatures, the… 
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