Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?1

  title={Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?1},
  author={Shelley J. Correll and Stephen Benard and In-Sun Paik},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  pages={1297 - 1338}
Survey research finds that mothers suffer a substantial wage penalty, although the causal mechanism producing it remains elusive. The authors employed a laboratory experiment to evaluate the hypothesis that status‐based discrimination plays an important role and an audit study of actual employers to assess its real‐world implications. In both studies, participants evaluated application materials for a pair of same‐gender equally qualified job candidates who differed on parental status. The… 
The Motherhood Penalty in Context: Assessing Discrimination in a Polarized Labor Market.
Findings provide causal evidence that employers in both contexts discriminate against mothers relative to equally qualified childless women, and within labor market segments, distinct job demands listed in job advertisements are associated with stronger discrimination.
Normative Discrimination and the Motherhood Penalty
This research proposes and tests a new theoretical mechanism to account for a portion of the motherhood penalty in wages and related labor market outcomes. At least a portion of this penalty is
The Motherhood Penalty: How Gender and Parental Status Influence Judgements of Job-Related Competence and Organizational Commitment
The Motherhood Penalty is an ongoing problem in the United States as many women find themselves working full-time after becoming mothers. Women who become mothers are perceived as less competent,
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Research grounded in gender role theories has shown that women face numerous employment disadvantages relative to men, with mothers often facing the greatest obstacles. We extend this literature by
Choice, Discrimination, and the Motherhood Penalty
Recent studies have documented substantial penalties associated with motherhood and suggest that discrimination plays an important role in producing them. In this article, I argue that the degree to
Do Hiring Practices Penalize Women and Benefit Men for Having Children? Experimental Evidence from Germany
  • L. Hipp
  • Economics
    European Sociological Review
  • 2019
Although observational studies from many countries have consistently shown that motherhood negatively affects women’s wages, experimental findings on its effect on the likelihood of being hired are
The Motherhood Penalty: Is It a Wage-Dependent Family Decision?
Abstract Recent studies have shown that even highly skilled women suffer a motherhood wage penalty, resulting in reduced pay relative to childless women. We use a unique dataset of all Israeli women
Gender Norms and the Motherhood Penalty: Experimental Evidence from India
This paper uses a field experiment to study the effect of perceived gender norms on the motherhood penalty in the Indian labor market. We randomly reported motherhood on fictitious CVs sent to
The Motherhood Wage Penalty by Work Conditions: How Do Occupational Characteristics Hinder or Empower Mothers?
Mothers are shown to receive lower wages than childless women across industrial countries. Although research on mothers’ wage disadvantage has noted that the extent of this disadvantage is not
The wage penalty for motherhood: Evidence on discrimination from panel data and a survey experiment for Switzerland
Background: Survey-based research finds a sizeable unexplained wage gap between mothers and nonmothers in affluent countries. The source of this wage gap is unclear: It can stem either from the


Getting a job: Is there a motherhood penalty?
Survey research finds that mothers suffer a substantial wage penalty, although the causal mechanism producing it remains elusive. The authors employed a laboratory experiment to evaluate the
Motherhood as a Status Characteristic
We present evidence that many of the disadvantaging effects that motherhood has on women's workplace outcomes derive from the devalued social status attached to the task of being a primary caregiver.
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Motherhood is associated with lower hourly pay, but the causes of this are not well understood. Mothers may earn less than other women because having children causes them to (1) lose job experience,
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This paper seeks an explanation for the well-documented wage disadvantage of mothers compared to women without children. An analysis of data from the 1968–88 National Longitudinal Survey of Young
Has the Price of Motherhood Declined Over Time? A Cross‐Cohort Comparison of the Motherhood Wage Penalty
Several recent studies have shown a negative association between motherhood and wages. However, an analysis of change over time in the motherhood penalty has not been conducted. Using two cohorts of
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We investigated the influence of gender and parental status on employment decisions. The shifting standards model predicts that parenthood polarizes judgments of women and men such that mothers are
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The author uses data from the 1968-1988 National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women to investigate the lower wages of mothers. In pooled cross-sectional models, difference models, and fixed-effects
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Notwithstanding recent gains, women have still not achieved parity with men in the workplace. This is further complicated by common negative images of pregnant women (Taylor and Langer, 1977). The
Men and Women at Work: Sex Segregation and Statistical Discrimination
This article develops and tests hypotheses about the determinants of sex segregation in occupations employing both men and women, analyzing data on a diverse sample of California establishments. In
Does Marriage Really Make Men More Productive
This paper presents new descriptive evidence regarding marital pay premiums earned by white males. Longitudinal data indicate that wages rise after marriage, and that cross-sectional marriage