Germline P Granules Are Liquid Droplets That Localize by Controlled Dissolution/Condensation

@article{Brangwynne2009GermlinePG,
  title={Germline P Granules Are Liquid Droplets That Localize by Controlled Dissolution/Condensation},
  author={Clifford P. Brangwynne and Christian R Eckmann and David S. Courson and Agata Rybarska and Carsten Hoege and J{\"o}bin Gharakhani and Frank J{\"u}licher and Anthony A. Hyman},
  journal={Science},
  year={2009},
  volume={324},
  pages={1729 - 1732}
}
In sexually reproducing organisms, embryos specify germ cells, which ultimately generate sperm and eggs. [...] Key Result As with other liquids, P granules rapidly dissolved and condensed. Localization occurred by a biased increase in P granule condensation at the posterior. This process reflects a classic phase transition, in which polarity proteins vary the condensation point across the cell. Such phase transitions may represent a fundamental physicochemical mechanism for structuring the cytoplasm.Expand
Cell Cytoplasm Compartmentalization: Localization Through Gradients
During embryonic development, precursor germ cells contain aggregates of protein and RNA known as germ granules. These germ granules are important in the specification of a functioning germ line,Expand
P granules phase transition induced by cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans embryo
P granules are germ granules contained in Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells. The first germ cell is specified by the one-cell embryo in which P granules localize to the posterior. Previous studiesExpand
Perinuclear P granules are the principal sites of mRNA export in adult C. elegans germ cells
TLDR
The results suggest that nuclear-associated P granules provide a perinuclear compartment where newly exported mRNAs are collected prior to their release to the general cytoplasm, and show that mRNA export factors are highly enriched at the NPCs associated with P granule. Expand
The Dynamics of P Granule Liquid Droplets Are Regulated by the Caenorhabditis elegans Germline RNA Helicase GLH-1 via Its ATP Hydrolysis Cycle
TLDR
Evidence is shown that the VASA-like germline RNA helicase GLH-1 couples distinct steps of its ATPase hydrolysis cycle to control the formation and disassembly of P granules, and defects in recruiting the P granule component PRG-1 to perinuclear foci in the adult germline correlate with the fertility defects observed in various GLh-1 mutants. Expand
Cytoplasmic Partitioning of P Granule Components Is Not Required to Specify the Germline in C. elegans
TLDR
A Caenorhabditis elegans mutant is identified in which P granules become unstable during mitosis and P granule proteins and RNAs are distributed equally to somatic and germline blastomeres, suggesting that asymmetric partitioning of maternal Pgranules is not essential to specify germ cell fate and may serve to protect the nascent germline from stress. Expand
P granule assembly and function in Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells.
TLDR
The findings in C elegans have important implications for the germ granule function during postnatal germ cell differentiation in mammals and the genetic pathway of P granule assembly is reviewed. Expand
Membraneless organelles: P granules in Caenorhabditis elegans
TLDR
These findings from C elegans, combined with work done in other model organisms, continue to provide insight into the formation of membraneless organelles and the important role they play in compartmentalizing cellular processes. Expand
Next generation organelles: Structure and role of germ granules in the germline
  • M. Gao, A. Arkov
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Molecular reproduction and development
  • 2013
TLDR
Recent studies have shown that different somatic cells, including stem cells and neurons, produce germ granule components that play a crucial role in stem cell maintenance and memory formation, indicating a much more diverse functional repertoire for these organelles than previously thought. Expand
A gel phase promotes condensation of liquid P granules in C. elegans embryos
TLDR
This work finds that the PGL-3 phase is intrinsically labile and requires a second phase for stabilization in embryos, and suggests that condensation of RNA granules can be regulated spatially by gel-like polymers that stimulate LLPS locally in the cytoplasm. Expand
Phase Transition in a Cell
TLDR
On page 1729 in this issue, Brangwynne et al. (3) report an unsual strategy for polarizing the cytoplasm in the one-cell stage C. elegans embryo. Expand
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