Geophagy: soil consumption enhances the bioactivities of plants eaten by chimpanzees

@article{Klein2007GeophagySC,
  title={Geophagy: soil consumption enhances the bioactivities of plants eaten by chimpanzees},
  author={No{\'e}mie Klein and François Fr{\"o}hlich and Sabrina Krief},
  journal={Naturwissenschaften},
  year={2007},
  volume={95},
  pages={325-331}
}
Geophagy, the deliberate ingestion of soil, is a widespread practice among animals, including humans. Although some cases are well documented, motivations and consequences of this practice on the health status of the consumer remain unclear. In this paper, we focused our study on chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the Kibale National Park, Uganda, after observing they sometimes ingest soil shortly before or after consuming some plant parts such as leaves of Trichilia rubescens… 
Geophagy among East African Chimpanzees: consumed soils provide protection from plant secondary compounds and bioavailable iron
TLDR
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TLDR
Observations of soil consumption by orangutans in the Sungai Wain Forest Preserve of Borneo are presented, along with physico-mineral–chemical analyses of the ingested soil in an effort to understand what might stimulate the activity.
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TLDR
Whether soil eaten by baboons protected their GI tract from plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is investigated and best laboratory practices for doing so are described and HPLC–DAD is suggested for the assessment of PSM adsorption of earth materials due to its reproducibility and accuracy.
Geophagy in the yellow-tailed woolly monkey (Lagothrix flavicauda) at La Esperanza, Peru: site characterization and soil composition
TLDR
High clay content lends support to geophagy as a mechanism for protection of the gastrointestinal tract in L. flavicauda, who face an increased predation risk when descending to the ground in the dry season.
Assessing the function of geophagy in a Malagasy rain forest lemur
TLDR
Soil consumption significantly correlated with fruit/seed consumption overall, but to a lesser degree in logged compared with unlogged sites, provides strong evidence for the protection hypothesis for geophagy, which may be especially important in areas where logging, or other forms of habitat disturbance, has been experienced.
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TLDR
The interplay of factors involved in geophagia, though varied, intricate and researched may not have been fully elucidated and further concerted efforts aimed at multidisciplinary research are warranted to address gaps in the corpus of knowledge on the important subject.
The function of geophagy in Nepal gray langurs: Sodium acquisition rather than detoxification or prevention of acidosis.
TLDR
The most likely function of geophagy was the acquisition of sodium in Nepal gray langurs, consistent with reports for other animals.
Selecting between iron-rich and clay-rich soils: a geophagy field experiment with black-and-white colobus monkeys in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda
TLDR
These findings lend the greatest plausibility to the protection hypothesis, given that intentionally ingested soil is a valuable resource that may confer health benefits, geophagy sites should be conserved and protected.
Geophagy among nonhuman primates: A systematic review of current knowledge and suggestions for future directions.
TLDR
The limited evidence suggests that geophagy is adaptive, and provides protection and mineral supplementation, and that it is protective, provides mineral supplements, and is nonadaptive.
Paleomedicine and the use of plant secondary compounds in the Paleolithic and Early Neolithic
  • K. Hardy
  • Medicine, Biology
    Evolutionary anthropology
  • 2019
TLDR
A broad‐spectrum approach to plant collection is likely to have been in place throughout the Paleolithic driven, in part, by the need for medicinal compounds.
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