Geomorphic Evidence for the Distribution of Ground Ice on Mars

@article{Squyres1986GeomorphicEF,
  title={Geomorphic Evidence for the Distribution of Ground Ice on Mars},
  author={Steven W. Squyres and Michael H. Carr},
  journal={Science},
  year={1986},
  volume={231},
  pages={249 - 252}
}
High-resolution Viking orbiter images show evidence for quasi-viscous relaxation of topography. The relaxation is believed to be due to creep deformation of ice in near-surface materials. The global distribution of the inferred ground ice shows a pronounced latitudinal dependence. The equatorial regions of Mars appear to be ice-poor, while the heavily cratered terrain poleward of � 30� latitude appears to be ice-rich. The style of creep poleward of � 30� varies with latitude, possibly due to… 
The persistence of equatorial ground ice on Mars
In the current Martian climate, ground ice is unstable in the equatorial regions and, if present, would undergo sublimation and diffusive loss to the atmosphere. Previous studies suggest that the ice
Geomorphic Evidence for the Presence of Ice Deposits in the Permanently Shadowed Regions of Scott‐E Crater on the Moon
The abundance and distribution of ice on the Moon are still unknown. Here, we examine the connections between geomorphic characteristics and the potential presence of lunar ice in permanently
The thermal stability of near-surface ground ice on Mars
THE existence of subsurface water ice on Mars has been predicted in several theoretical studies1–5, but there are no definitive observations of its present distribution. Geomorphic features on the
Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice
TLDR
Observational evidence for a mid-latitude reservoir of near-surface water ice occupying the pore space of soils is reported and it is inferred that the reservoir was created during the last phase of high orbital obliquity less than 100,000 years ago, and is now being diminished.
Ice‐driven creep on Martian debris slopes
Accumulations of rocky debris at the base of bedrock escarpments on Mars have mean inclinations of ∼20°, well below the angle of repose (∼35°). These inclinations decrease with increasing latitude,
North‐south asymmetry in Martian crater slopes
[1] The presence of an extensive ice-rich layer in the near subsurface of the Martian regolith could result in viscous creep responsible for softening of craters at middle and high latitudes. The
Near‐tropical subsurface ice on Mars
Near‐surface perennial water ice on Mars has been previously inferred down to latitudes of about 45° and could result from either water vapor diffusion through the regolith under current conditions
Geomorphological Evidence for Shallow Ice in the Southern Hemisphere of Mars
The localized loss of near‐surface excess ice on Mars by sublimation (and perhaps melting) can produce thermokarstic collapse features such as expanded craters and scalloped depressions, which can be
Response of Martian ground ice to orbit‐induced climate change
[1] Variations in the orbit and spin axis of Mars drive climate changes that affect both surface temperatures and atmospheric water content, both of which affect the distribution of ground ice. A
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 25 REFERENCES
The stability of ground ice in the equatorial region of Mars
Consideration of the partial pressure of H2O in the Martian atmosphere and the range of mean annual temperatures at the Martian surface suggests that the occurrence of ground ice in equilibrium with
Martian permafrost features
The outgassing history of Mars and the prevailing temperature conditions suggest that ground ice may occur to depths of kilometers over large areas of the planet. The presence of permafrost is also
Ice and debris in the fretted terrain, Mars
Viking moderate- and high-resolution images along the northern highland margin were studied monoscopically and stereoscopically to contribute to an understanding of the development of fretted
Global seasonal variation of water vapor on Mars and the implications for permafrost
Observations of the global distribution and seasonal variation of the Martian atmospheric water vapor have been made from the Viking orbiters for a continuous period covering a complete Martian year.
Latitudinal distribution of a debris mantle on the Martian surface
Mariner 9 narrow angle pictures show that many areas on Mars are buried by debris mantles that later have been partially eroded. A survey of the present debris distributions shows that they are
The distribution of lobate debris aprons and similar flows on Mars
Planet-wide mapping of lobate debris aprons and other similar flows on Mars shows a strong concentration in two latitudinal bands roughly 25° wide and centered at 40°N and 45°S. This distribution
Mars: Retention of Ice
TLDR
The presence of subsurface ice may explain the higher radar reflectivity of the dark areas than of the bright areas, and observation of its seasonal variations is suggested.
Classification and time of formation of Martian channels based on Viking data
Fluviatile and volcanic Martian channels, first discovered on Mariner 9 pictures, have been reexamined by using Viking orbital photography. The superior discrimination of the Viking photographs,
Photochemistry and evolution of Mars' atmosphere: A Viking perspective
Viking measurements of the Martian upper atmosphere indicate thermospheric temperatures below 200oK, temperatures much colder than those implied by remote sensing experiments on Mariner 6, 7, and 9
...
...