On Energy-Efficient and Low-Latency Medium Access Control in Wireless Sensor Networks
We introduce a <i>geographical adaptive fidelity</i> (GAF) algorithm that reduces energy consumption in ad hoc wireless networks. GAF conserves energy by identifying nodes that are equivalent from a routing perspective and then turning off unnecessary nodes, keeping a constant level of routing <i>fidelity</i>. GAF moderates this policy using application- and system-level information; nodes that source or sink data remain on and intermediate nodes monitor and balance energy use. GAF is independent of the underlying ad hoc routing protocol; we simulate GAF over unmodified AODV and DSR. Analysis and simulation studies of GAF show that it can consume 40% to 60% less energy than an unmodified ad hoc routing protocol. Moreover, simulations of GAP suggest that network lifetime increases proportionally to node density; in one example, a four-fold increase in node density leads to network lifetime increase for 3 to 6 times (depending on the mobility pattern). More generally, GAF is an example of <i>adaptive fidelity</i>, a technique proposed for extending the lifetime of self-configuring systems by exploiting redundancy to conserve energy while maintaining application fidelity.