Geography, land inequality and regional numeracy in Europe in historical perspective

@article{Baten2018GeographyLI,
  title={Geography, land inequality and regional numeracy in Europe in historical perspective},
  author={Joerg Baten and Ralph Hippe},
  journal={Journal of Economic Growth},
  year={2018},
  volume={23},
  pages={79-109}
}
We find a relationship between geographic factors and numeracy in more than 300 regions of Europe around the year 1900. We argue that the distribution of land ownership is a plausible mechanism, given that it is related to the geographic factors under study. Consistent with theoretical studies in the Unified Growth Theory framework, we find that inequality in land distribution has a negative correlation with human capital formation as landowners did not have incentives to promote educational… 
Regional human capital inequality in Europe in the long run, 1850 – 2010
Human capital is an important factor for economic and social development, as has been underlined by recent theoretical models. A range of contributions has focused on the international evolution of
Winners and Losers from Enclosure: Evidence from Danish Land Inequality 1682-1895
There is a vast literature on the effects of land inequality and agrarian reforms, but little on the origins of this inequality. We exploit a new and unique parish-level database of land inequality
The Long Shadow of Agrarian Conflict: Agrarian Inequality and Voting in Spain
This article studies the persistent effects of past agrarian inequality on contemporary voting preferences. Although Western European countries became industrial (and later post-industrial)
Elite violence and elite numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: roots of the divergence
Our research expands earlier studies on elite human capital by widening the geographic scope and tracing the early roots of the European divergence. We present new evidence of elite numeracy in
Political equality and quality of government
This paper examines the relationship between political equality and quality of government. Our hypothesis is that political equality fosters access to inclusive education and ultimately promotes good
Remoteness equals backwardness? Human capital and market access in the European regions: insights from the long run
ABSTRACT In a recent contribution, Redding and Schott [2003. “Distance, Skill Deepening and Development: Will Peripheral Countries Ever Get Rich?” Journal of Development Economics 72 (2): 515–541.
Agri-Culture of the Motherland. The effect of Land Inequality on Gender Equality Beliefs
Contemporary beliefs about gender equality differ across countries. Beliefs towards gender equality focus on the position and role of women in society, which include beliefs for women’s participation
The long-run impact of human capital on innovation and economic development in the regions of Europe
ABSTRACT Human capital is supposed to be an important factor for innovation and economic development. However, the long-run impact of human capital on current innovation and economic development is
Elite Violence and Elite Numeracy in Europe from 500 to 1900 CE: A Co-Evolution?
We develop a new indicator for elite numeracy in order to investigate trends in European elite numeracy since the 6th century CE and describe its co-evolution with elite violence over this period.
Regional inequalities in PISA: the case of Italy and Spain
This technical brief analyses the regional distribution of skills in Italy and Spain. Educational attainment rates have frequently been used as an indicator of regional educational development in EU
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 67 REFERENCES
Dimensions of Land Inequality and Economic Development
There are several theories linking land inequality with aspects of economic development. Empirical work on these theories has attempted to establish a relationship between land inequality and
Inequality in Land Ownership, the Emergence of Human Capital Promoting Institutions and the Great Divergence
This paper suggests that inequality in the distribution of landownership adversely affected the emergence of human-capital promoting institutions (e.g. public schooling), and thus the pace and the
Geography is not destiny: geography, institutions and literacy in England, 1837–63
Geography made rural society in the south-east of England unequal. Economies of scale in grain growing created a farmer elite and many landless labourers. In the pastoral north-west, in contrast,
Political reforms, rural crises, and land tenure in western Europe
Good, Bad, and Ugly Colonial Activities: Do They Matter for Economic Development?
Abstract Levels of development vary widely within countries in the Americas. We argue that part of this variation has its roots in the colonial era, when colonizers engaged in different economic
Land Access Inequality and Education in Pre-Industrial Spain
By collecting a large dataset in mid-19th century Spain, this paper contributes to the debate on institutions and economic development by examining the historical link between land access inequality
Was land reform necessary? : access to land in Spain, 1860 to 1931
In Spain, land reform involving the break-up of large southern estates was a central issue during the first decades of the twentieth century. It was justified on the grounds of economic efficiency,
Agrarian Structure and Political Power: Landlord and Peasant in the Making of Latin America
The troubled history of democracy in Latin America has been the subject of much scholarly commentary. This volume breaks new ground by systematically exploring the linkages among the historical
...
...