Geographical and seasonal association between linamarin and cyanide exposure from cassava and the upper motor neurone disease konzo in former Zaire

@article{BaneaMayambu1997GeographicalAS,
  title={Geographical and seasonal association between linamarin and cyanide exposure from cassava and the upper motor neurone disease konzo in former Zaire},
  author={Jean-Pierre Banea-Mayambu and Thorkild Tyllesk{\"a}r and N Gitebo and Nenga Gamanda Matadi and Mehari Gebre-Medhin and Hans Rosling},
  journal={Tropical Medicine \& International Health},
  year={1997},
  volume={2}
}
High cyanide intake from consumption of insufficiently processed cassava has been advanced as a possible aetiology of the upper motor neurone disease konzo. However, similar neurodamage has not been associated with cyanide exposure from any other source. With an ecological study design, we compared 22 cases of konzo, 57 unaffected household members and 116 members from unaffected households, a total of 195 subjects, in konzo‐affected savanna villages with 103 subjects in adjacent non‐affected… 
Konzo: From Poverty, Cassava, and Cyanogen Intake to Toxico-Nutritional Neurological Disease
Konzo is a distinct neurological entity with selective upper motor neuron damage, characterized by an abrupt onset of an irreversible, non-progressive, and symmetrical spastic para/tetraparesis.
High cassava consumption without cyanide exposure in Kinshasa, in former Zaire
TLDR
The absence of cyanide exposure in Kinshasa may be explained by disappearance of cyanogens from roots during transport, storage, and careful drying preceding mechanical milling done by all women in KINShasa.
Neuropatía atáxica tropical y Konzo asociadas al consumo excesivo de yuca
TLDR
It was showed that in unprotected populations of developing countries, food-derived diets rely on easy and economical crops, such as cassava, but this plant contains cyanogenic compounds that exert neurotoxic effects that appear to predispose an individual to neurological disease when it is consumed in abundance or inadequately prepared.
A new unifying hypothesis for lathyrism, konzo and tropical ataxic neuropathy: nitriles are the causative agents.
Appearance of konzo in South-Kivu, a wartorn area in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
  • J. Chabwine, C. Masheka, B. Nemery
  • Geography, Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2011
Low dietary cyanogen exposure from frequent consumption of potentially toxic cassava in Malawi.
TLDR
It is concluded that cyanogenesis is a preferred characteristic of cassava by the studied farmers because it enhances food security and the availability of water and their knowledge about toxicity and processing enables these women farmers to provide a safe staple food from bitter cassava roots.
Konzo outbreak among refugees from Central African Republic in Eastern region, Cameroon.
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References

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TLDR
It is revealed that women in the konzo-affected Bandundu region, when in a hurry to sell cassava, shorten soaking to only one night, whereas a period of four nights was strictly adhered to in an unaffected neighbouring region.
Determinants of cyanide exposure from cassava in a konzo-affected population in northern Tanzania
A village in northern Tanzania affected by the paralytic disease konzo was compared to a neighbouring unaffected village to investigate possible causes of high cyanide exposure from cassava
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TLDR
High cyanide exposure in this population with high prevalence of konzo in Zaire is confirmed by promotion of sufficient soaking of cassava with strict adherence to traditional three nights soaking and the use of completely dry flour.
Fate in humans of dietary intake of cyanogenic glycosides from roots of sweet cassava consumed in Cuba.
TLDR
Results indicate that the dominant cyanogen in boiled cassava is glycosides that pass through the human body without causing cyanide exposure, and it remains to be studied whether humans occasionally possess intestinal or tissue beta-glucosidases that can hydrolyse cyanogenic glycoside from cassava.
Dietary determinants of a non-progressive spastic paraparesis (Konzo): a case-referent study in a high incidence area of Zaire.
TLDR
This study supports a causal relationship between insufficient processing of bitter cassava and konzo, and shows a dose-response relationship for insufficient cassava soaking, both unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders.
Cyanide detoxification in rats exposed to acetonitrile and fed a low protein diet.
TLDR
It is concluded that the rat has a high capacity for detoxification of cyanide, and the observation of a relationship between circulating cyanide on the one hand and circulating cyanate and urinary excretion of ATC on the other highlights the possibility that cyanide metabolites may mediate neurotoxic effects of cyanides.
Relationship of Dietary Intake of Sulphur Amino-acids to Urinary Excretion of Inorganic Sulphate in Man
TLDR
The present experiments were undertaken to investigate the relation between the sulphur amino-acids in the diet and the excretion of urinary inorganic sulphate in man.
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