Geographic and genetic boundaries of brown bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Caucasus

  title={Geographic and genetic boundaries of brown bear (Ursus arctos) population in the Caucasus},
  author={Marine Murtskhvaladze and Alexander Gavashelishvili and David Tarkhnishvili},
  journal={Molecular Ecology},
The taxonomic status of brown bears in the Caucasus remains unclear. Several morphs or subspecies have been identified from the morphological (craniological) data, but the status of each of these subspecies has never been verified by molecular genetic methods. We analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences (control region) to reveal phylogenetic relationships and infer divergence time between brown bear subpopulations in the Caucasus. We estimated migration and gene flow from both mitochondrial DNA… 

Exceptional maternal lineage diversity in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from Turkey

This study reveals a high level of mitochondrial diversity in Turkish U. arctos, shows that the ranges of both European and Middle Eastern clades extend into Turkey, and identifies a new divergent lineage of possibly wider historical occurrence.

Molecular phylogeography of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Northeastern Asia based on analyses of complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

The maternal phylogeny of the brown bear is reconstructed and estimated divergence times are estimated to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia.

Mitochondrial DNA haplogrouping of the brown bear, Ursus arctos (Carnivora: Ursidae) in Asia, based on a newly developed APLP analysis

This work developed an amplified product length polymorphism (APLP) analysis for mtDNA-haplogrouping U. arctos specimens by detecting haplogroup-specific SNPs and revealed some of the same haplogroups as those occurring in eastern Hokkaido and eastern Alaska in continental Eurasia.

Paternal phylogeographic structure of the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in northeastern Asia and the effect of male-mediated gene flow to insular populations

The results indicate that sex-biased dispersal has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of the brown bear in continental populations and in peripheral insular populations, such as on Hokkaido, the southern Kuril Islands, and Sakhalin.

Speciation in Caucasian lizards: climatic dissimilarity of the habitats is more important than isolation time

Analysis of the morphological and genetic boundaries of three species of the rock lizard clade Darevskia ‘rudis’ in relation to the environment found differential landscape-dependent selection within the contact zones is likely to have triggered the rapid development of isolation mechanisms.

Phylogeography of the Brown Bear ( Ursus arctos ) in Northeastern Asia Based on Analyses of Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

The maternal phylogeny of the brown bear is reconstructed and estimated divergence times are estimated to investigate the timing of brown bear migrations, especially in northeastern Eurasia.

Population genetics of the main population of brown bears in southwest Asia

Genetic studies of the Eurasian brown bear (Ursus arctos) have so far focused on populations from Europe and North America, although the largest distribution area of brown bears is in Asia. In this

Population Genetic Structure of the Asian Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus) within and Across Management Units in Northern Japan

The presence of subpopulations within an MU suggests that each MU is not always a single demographic unit, and genetic variation in the mitochondrial DNA control region and seven autosomal microsatellite loci was assessed in bears captured in southern Tohoku indicated that genetically distinct sub Populations are localized to areas that correspond roughly to MUs.



Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, phylogeography, and conservation genetics of the brown bear Ursus arctos in Europe

  • P. TaberletJ. Bouvet
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1994
This study demonstrates the relevance of the molecular phylogeographic approach to the identification of conservation units of the brown bear and deduces the potential conservation units from these results.

Phylogenetic Relationships Among Fragmented Asian Black Bear (Ursus Thibetanus) Populations in Western Japan

Since nuclear genetic diversity will be lost in the three western populations because of the small population size and genetic isolation, their habitats need to be preserved, and these four populations should be linked to each other by corridors to promote gene flow from the easternmost population with highernuclear genetic diversity.

Nuclear DNA microsatellite analysis of genetic diversity and gene flow in the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos)

This study extended the analysis of genetic diversity and gene flow in the Scandinavian brown bear using data from 19 nuclear DNA microsatellite loci and proposed one evolutionarily significant unit and four management units for the brown bear in Scandinavia.

Pre-pleistocene refugia and differentiation between populations of the caucasian salamander (Mertensiella caucasica).

A 350-bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene was sequenced in the Caucasian salamander, Mertensiella caucasica, representing 10 populations from across its range along the Black Sea coast, showing parallel patterns in body proportions and coloration patterns.

Phylogeography and mitochondrial diversity of extirpated brown bear (Ursus arctos) populations in the contiguous United States and Mexico

The data are consistent with recent genetic evidence that brown bears were south of the ice prior to the last glacial maximum, and there is no support for previous subspecies designations, although bears of the southwestern United States may have had a distinctive, but recent, pattern of ancestry.

Variation in Skull Morphology of Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) from Caucasus

Multivariate analysis of cranial variables revealed the existence of three groups, or ecomorphs, apparent in both male and female Caucasian bears, which supported previous work that showed diversity in this group.

Genetic characterization of Kenai brown bears (Ursus arctos): microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region variation in brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula, south central Alaska

Kenai brown bears have lower levels of mtDNA haplotypic diversity relative to most other brown bear populations in Alaska, and a genetic signature of a bottleneck under the infinite alleles model (IAM), but not under the stepwise mutation model (SMM), the two-phase model (TPM) of microsatellite mutation.

Microevolution of the mitochondrial DNA control region in the Japanese brown bear (Ursus arctos) population.

Investigating nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region to describe natural genetic variations and to assess the relationships between subpopulations of the brown bear Ursus arctos on Hokkaido Island, Japan found that most of the phylogenetically close haplotypes within each group were distributed geographically close to each other.

06. Ecological divergence between two evolutionary lineages of the Caucasian salamander: evidence from GIS analysis

The genetic isolation of these two lineages is caused by differential climatic requirements rather than by existing fragmentation of suitable habitats, suggesting that the species from the Greater Caucasus is explained by unsuitable climatic conditions.

Phylogeographic Patterns within a Metapopulation of Black Bears (Ursus americanus) in the American Southwest

Conservation initiatives concerning recolonization by black bears within the Mexico–Texas mainland–island metapopulation should focus on preventing human–bear interactions and maintaining corridors for dispersal between the mainland populations in Mexico and the island populations in western Texas.