Genus extinction, origination, and the durations of sedimentary hiatuses

  title={Genus extinction, origination, and the durations of sedimentary hiatuses},
  author={Shanan E. Peters},
  • S. Peters
  • Published in Paleobiology 1 September 2006
  • Geography, Environmental Science
Abstract Short-term variations in rates of taxonomic extinction and origination in the fossil record may be the result of true changes in rates of turnover, variable rates of fossil preservation, or some combination of the two. Here, positive extinction and origination rate excursions among Phanerozoic marine animal genera are reexpressed in terms of the amount of normal, background time they represent. In addition to providing a background-adjusted calibration of rate intensities, this… 

Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record

  • J. Alroy
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
The discipline-wide effort to database the fossil record at the occurrence level has made it possible to estimate marine invertebrate extinction and origination rates with much greater accuracy. The

A sampling-adjusted macroevolutionary history for Ordovician–Early Silurian crinoids

A comprehensive, list-based compilation of taxonomically and stratigraphically vetted global crinoid genus occurrences is used to evaluate and correct for the effects of variable and incomplete sampling from the Ordovician through Early Silurian and finds support for several important revisions to the macroevolutionary history of crinoids.

The geological completeness of paleontological sampling in North America

Abstract A growing body of work has quantitatively linked many macroevolutionary patterns, including short- and long-term changes in biodiversity, rates of taxonomic extinction and origination, and

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera

Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean–atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many

Estimating extinction with the fossil record

Many ecological and palaeontological studies focus on extinction. The fossil record is particularly important for studying long-term patterns in extinction: although analyses of extant phylogenies

Sampling-standardized expansion and collapse of reef building in the Phanerozoic

Abstract. Tracing the variability of reef production over long temporal scales is important to approach natural processes favoring or suppressing reef growth. Raw compilations of reef abundance per

Stratigraphic signatures of mass extinctions: ecological and sedimentary determinants

By tracing stratigraphic ranges of extant mollusc species preserved in the Holocene succession of the Po coastal plain (Italy), it is demonstrated that, if mass extinction took place today, complex but entirely false extinction patterns would be recorded regionally due to shifts in local community composition and non-random variation in the abundance of skeletal remains.

Environmental determinants of extinction selectivity in the fossil record

  • S. Peters
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2008
A new compilation of the temporal durations of sedimentary rock packages is used to show that carbonate and terrigenous clastic marine shelf environments have different spatio-temporal dynamics and that these dynamics predict patterns of genus-level extinction, extinction selectivity and diversity among Sepkoski’s Palaeozoic and modern evolutionary faunae.

Global occurrence trajectories of microfossils: environmental volatility and the rise and fall of individual species

It is found that higher estimated environmental volatility early in the life of a species positively correlates with lengths of periods of dominance, given that a species survives the initial stress of the environmental fluctuations.

Abundance and extinction in Ordovician–Silurian brachiopods, Cincinnati Arch, Ohio and Kentucky

Test the relationship between abundance and extinction among brachiopod genera within seven third-order depositional sequences spanning the Late Ordovician to Early Silurian (Katian–Aeronian) of the Cincinnati Arch and finds that abundance is not positively correlated with duration, further evidence that the Ordvician/Silurian extinction was not accompanied by a shift in the macroevolutionary selectivity regime.



Geologic constraints on the macroevolutionary history of marine animals.

  • S. Peters
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
This work compares the rates of expansion and truncation of preserved marine sedimentary basins to rates of origination and extinction among Phanerozoic marine animal genera and suggests that the processes responsible for producing variability in the sedimentary rock record, such as plate tectonics and sea-level change, may have been dominant and consistent macroevolutionary forces throughout the Phanrozoic.

Origination and Extinction through the Phanerozoic: A New Approach

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    The Journal of Geology
  • 2003
Observed first and last appearances of marine animal and microfossil genera in a way that explicitly takes incompleteness and its variation into consideration allows estimates of true rates of origination and extinction throughout the Phanerozoic.

Stratigraphic Variation in the Timing of First and Last Occurrences

Abstract With the exception of the Neogene, it is difficult in much of the fossil record to measure range offset; that is, the difference in age between the first or last occurrence of a species in a

Determinants of extinction in the fossil record

A new compilation of the amount of exposed marine sedimentary rock is used to predict how the observed fossil record of extinction would appear if the time series of true extinction rates were in fact smooth, and supports the hypothesis that much of the observed short-term volatility in extinction rates is an artefact of variability in the stratigraphic record.

Origination and extinction components of taxonomic diversity: general problems

  • M. Foote
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2000
Modeling supports intuitive and empirical arguments that single-interval taxa, being especially sensitive to variation in preservation and interval length, produce many undesirable distortions of the fossil record, and suggests which rate measures are likely to be most accurate in principle.

Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies.

  • A. Smith
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
Data on rock outcrop area compiled for post-Palaeozoic sediments from Western Europe at stage level are presented and show a strongly cyclical pattern corresponding to first- and second-order sequence stratigraphical depositional cycles.

Biodiversity in the Phanerozoic: a reinterpretation

Abstract Many features of global diversity compilations have proven robust to continued sampling and taxonomic revision. Inherent biases in the stratigraphic record may nevertheless substantially

A revised macroevolutionary history for Ordovician–Early Silurian crinoids

Removing taxonomic and stratigraphic errors in Sepkoski's compendium substantially changes the understanding of the nature of large-scale biotic change for an important Paleozoic taxon during the end-Ordovician.

The quality of the fossil record: a sequence stratigraphic perspective

Abstract As paleobiology continues to address an ever broader array of questions, it becomes increasingly important to interpret confidently the meaning of the pattern of fossil occurrences as found

Mass extinctions and sea-level changes

  • A. Hallam
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1999