Gentamicin-Adenylyltransferase Activity as a Cause of Gentamicin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  title={Gentamicin-Adenylyltransferase Activity as a Cause of Gentamicin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa},
  author={Sherwin A. Kabins and Catherine Nathan and S. Cohen},
  journal={Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy},
  pages={565 - 570}
Gentamicin adenylyltransferase activity was found in extracts of clinical isolates of gentamicin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts of one of these isolates, P. aeruginosa POW, inactivated gentamicin in the presence of adenosine 5′-triphosphate. Extracts of strain POW catalyzed the binding of radioactivity from [14C]adenine adenosine 5′-triphosphate to gentamicin components, tobramycin, sisomicin, kanamycin A and B and, to a variable degree, streptomycin and spectinomycin. The substrate… 
Enzymatic modification of aminoglycoside antibiotics in gentamicin-resistant gram-negative bacteria.
Biochemical and physiologic basis for susceptibility and resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antimicrobial agents.
  • L. Sabath
  • Biology, Medicine
    Reviews of infectious diseases
  • 1984
Reduced binding to the S12 protein, decreased active transport, and enzyme-mediated modification are the major mechanisms responsible for resistance to aminoglycoside in P. aeruginosa.
Emergence of gentamicin-resistant bacteria: experience with tobramycin therapy of infections due to gentamicin-resistant organisms.
It is suggested that tobramycin may be effective for treatment of some, but not all, infections caused by gentamicin-resistant bacteria.
Amikacin, an aminoglycoside with marked activity against antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates.
Examination of cell-free extracts from the 52 strains resistant to amikacin revealed that only four contained the amikACin-inactivating enzyme aminoglycoside-6'-acetyltransferase, a finding indicating that this mechanism of resistance is rare.
Purification and properties of two gentamicin-modifying enzymes, coded by a single plasmid pPK237 originating from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The acetyltransferase after DEAE chromatography is stable for many months at -20 degrees C, while the adenylyl transferase after purification is highly unstable; it shows enzymatic activity only in the presence of Mg++.
Pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in leukaemic patients.
The incidence of production and biological activity of various extracellular factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from leukaemic and non-leukaemic patients were investigated and a hypothetical model of interaction between exotoxin A production and cytotoxin is proposed.
Uptake of (methyl-14C)-sisomicin and (methyl-14C)-gentamicin into bacterial cells.
In eleven out of the twelve organisms studied employing (methyl-14C)-sisomicin and ( methyl- 14C)-gentamicin, uptake of the former was found higher that that of the latter.
New plasmid-mediated aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase of broad substrate range that adenylylates amikacin
The same aminoglycoside 2"-adenylyltransferase was isolated from four gram-negative species which were among a random group of gentamicin-resistant isolates from the same hospital, and genetic experiments clearly established that both enzymes were expressed by a conjugative plasmid.


Enzymatic Adenylylation of Streptomycin and Spectinomycin by R-Factor-Resistant Escherichia coli
It is concluded that the inactivation of the two drugs is catalyzed by the same enzyme, and those strains which are resistant to streptomycin and spectinomycin contain the adenylylating enzyme.
Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns
A single R-factor type may have been maintained in the Burns Unit between the two Pseudomonas outbreaks as a plasmid conferring resistance to ampicillin in K. aerogenes.
A virulent nosocomial Klebsiella with a transferable R factor for gentamicin: emergence and suppression.
In February, 1970, at the District of Columbia General Hospital, there occurred a sudden outbreak of serious infections caused by gentamicin-resistant strains of gram-negative rods, showing the same strain of Klebsiella type 22, resistant to all common antibiotics except cephalothin and the polymyxins.
Characteristics of R931 and Other Pseudomonas aeruginosa R Factors
R factor R931 exists as a naturally occurring high-frequency transfer system in P. aeruginosa strains 931 and 1310, however, in strain 280 it acts as if subject to fertility repression, and other members of the P-2 compatibility group also are high- frequencies transfer systems in the natural host and in strain 1310.
Rapid microassay of gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin in serum or plasma.
With slight modifications in the standard agar diffusion methods, it was possible to determine the concentrations of antibiotics in 0.08 ml samples of serum or plasma and this method was particularly helpful for regulation of the therapy in patients with diminished renal function in whom estimation of dosage on the basis of renal function was less reliable.
A series of studies on the genetics of the resistance factors concerned are conducted and the results the authors have so far obtained may be summarized as follows.
Aminoglycoside Antibiotics: Inactivation by Phosphorylation in Escherichia coli Carrying R Factors
R-factor strains which are streptomycin-resistant and spectinomycin -sensitive have been found to inactivate strePTomycin by a new mechanism that involves phosphorylated 3'-OH group of the 2-deoxy-2-methylamino-l-glucopyranosyl moiety.
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria.
The resistance of resistant mutants to aminoglycoside antibiotics and the role of acetyltransferase in that resistance is concerned are illustrated.
Genetics of Pseudomonas.
The present study focuses on the treatment of Pseudomonas phages with HOST-CONTROLLED MODIFICATION, which has shown promising results in relation to the down-regulation of Bacteriocins in P. aeruginosa and the development of Conjugation.
Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method.
Recommendations of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards continue to be based on this publication; the “Kirby-Bauer” method is, among the many disk methods used in other countries, still the one that has been researched most thoroughly and updated continuously.