Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus
The genetic diversity in durum wheat, Triticum turgidum durum, has been strongly reduced since the domestication of the wild Triticum turgidum dicoccoides. Monitoring durum wheat composite crosses incorporating related tetraploid taxa, such as wild and domesticated emmer wheat, is a suitable evolutionary pre-breeding method. Transcriptome sequencing paves the way for a genomic survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in such populations, offering the possibility of genotyping by sequencing to use these resources in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selection (GS) programs. Evolutionary Pre-breeding pOpulation (EPO) is an evolutionary durum wheat pre-breeding population. Sequencing the transcriptome of 179 durum wheat lines (175 from EPO) led to the detection of 103,262 SNPs on two reference transcriptomes: one from the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium and one assembled de novo on durum wheat. Using strict filtering to remove dubious heterozygous SNPs, EPO genetic diversity was eventually described with 76,188 high-confidence SNPs. The percentage of missing genotyping data depended on the expression level, and 88 individuals out of 175 were genotyped per SNP on average. Using the 3B pseudo-molecule of bread wheat, the transcription and diversity levels were shown to be higher in distal regions than in proximal regions, but SNPs were available throughout the chromosomes. Assuming good synteny with Hordeum, the trend was similar on the 14 chromosomes of the durum wheat genome. EPO hosts a high level of diversity, has a number of SNPs in low linkage disequilibrium (<40 Mb) and would be well suited for GWAS and GS programs.